Gongjin's Campaign Memorials
Gongjin's Campaign Memorials

Cuan Xi 爨習 was a General who Commands the Army in the region of Nanzhong following Zhuge Liang's pacification of the region.


Cuan Xi is only mentioned in the 4th century works Han-Jin chunqiu 漢晉春秋 by Xi Zuochi and chapter four of the Huayang guo zhi 華陽國志 by Chang Qu.[1] These works have been cited by Pei Songzhi for his annotated version of the Records of the Three Kingdoms.

Cuan Xi was from Jianning county in Yizhou commandery, which was later renamed to Jianning commandery.[1][3] He was an uncle of Yong Kai.[5] Reportedly, prior to Zhuge Liang’s campaign Yong Kai selected Cuan Xi to administer the commercially important town of Jianling, at the northern tip of Lake Dian.[5] This placed Cuan Xi far from the anticipated battles lines farther to the north.

In 225 AD Zhuge Liang pacified Nanzhong and made the worthy and competent men of the region officials.[n 2] Cuan Xi was made General who Commands the Army (lǐngjūn jiāngjūn 領軍將軍).[1][3] Like Meng Huo, he proved himself invaluable to Zhuge Liang and soon found himself in Chengdu commanding Shu-Han armies.[5]


  • The Cuan Youyan bei 爨尤顔碑, a stele inscription tracing the genealogy of the Cuan clan, claims that Cuan Xi allied with Zhuge Liang prior to the murder of Yong Kai. However, this is unlikely. The alliance occurred after that event.
  1. The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms erroneously romanized Ts'uan Hsi as Ch'üan Hsi[3]
  2. It is not known if Cuan Xi participated in the Nanzhong campaign. He is not mentioned as having fought with or against Shu-Han though, but he was a relative of Yong Kai, who might've called upon him. On the other hand, Cuan Xi was stationed rather far from the rest of the group.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Chang Qu, Huayang guo zhi, Records of Nanzhong.
  2. Wiktionary, pages for and .
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Fang, Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, volume 1, page 196.
  4. de Crespigny, A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms. biography of Cuan Xi.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Herman, The Kingdoms of Nanzhong in T’oung Pao 95, page 265


  • Chang Qu 常璩 (c.291–c.361). Huayang guo zhi 華陽國志 “Records of the Countries to the South of Mount Hua”.
  • Fang, Achilles. The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms. Vol. I. Harvard University Press, 1952. 2 vols.
  • Herman, John. “The Kingdoms of Nanzhong China’s Southwest Border Region Prior to the Eighth Century” T'oung Pao 95, 2009.
  • Sima Guang 司馬光 (1019–1086). Zizhi tongjian 資治通鑒 “Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government”.