Gongjin's Campaign Memorials
Gongjin's Campaign Memorials

I have orders to kill a rebel minister.
—Lü Bu

Lü Bu 呂布 was a military general and minor warlord during the later Han dynasty. He was highly skilled in horse-riding and archery. He was nicknamed “The Flying General”.

History of the Later Han biography[]

 Lü Bu, style name Fengxian 奉先, was a native of Jiuyuan county, Wuyuan commandery. Known for his martial prowess, he took a position in Bing province. Ding Yuan 丁原, Inspector [of Bing province] and concurrent Commandant of Cavalry, posted his troop in Henei and appointed Lü Bu as Registrar (zhǔbù 主簿), because the latter stood highly in the former's favour. Emperor Ling of Han passed away before Ding Yuan led his troop towards Luoyang to secretly conspire with He Jin 何進 [for the elimination of the Regular Attendants]. At the time, Ding Yuan was appointed as Chief Commandant [of Cavalry] (jí dūwèi 騎都尉). Unexpectedly, He Jin was killed [by the eunuchs], and Dong Zhuo 董卓 exploited this fact to lead his troops into Luoyang, intent on staging a war against Ding Yuan to take in the latter's troops. However, the fact that Lü Bu was a trusted man to Ding Yuan prompted Dong Zhuo to induce the warrior to do away with his rival. It turned out that Lü Bu killed his patron and took the severed head as a token of introduction for his new lord, who accordingly appointed him as Commandant of Cavalry and lavished favors upon him as if how a father treated his own son. Lü Bu excelled in horsemanship and marksmanship with supernatural arm power, thus earning him the name “Flying General”.

 Before shortly, he was recommended as General of the Household (zhōngláng jiāng 中郎將) and titled as Marquis of a Chief Village (dōutíng hóu 都亭侯). Dong Zhuo was aware of his own over-arrogance in fear of being trapped that he kept Lü Bu as his bodyguard in case of any eventuality. Moreover, Dong Zhuo was narrow-minded and fiery-tempered that he threw a halberd ( 戟) toward Lü Bu just because of a small annoyance. Lü Bu deftly dodged it and later apologized to Dong Zhuo for this to calm down the latter. But a resentment grew on Lü Bu and he established an illicit relationship with a maid ( 婢) of Dong Zhuo when he was ordered to guard Dong's harem. However, such covert deed made him live in constant fear [of being discovered].[1] Before Lü Bu was well employed by Ding Yuan, Wang Yun 王允 treated Lü Bu with full courtesy for the latter's physical strength over that of all in Bingzhou city. Since Lü Bu's resentment over Dong Zhuo, he paid Wang Yun a visit and related how he was nearly killed by Dong Zhuo. At that moment, Wang Yun was deliberating with Sun Rui 孫瑞, Deputy Director of the Secretariat (shàngshū púyè 尚書僕射) in secret how to do away with Dong Zhuo. Lü Bu's timely visit made him a suitable collaborator within. However, Lü Bu was somewhat reluctant, “He were a father to me, how could I bear to kill him?” Wang Yun replied, “Your family name is Lü, he is not your father. Now you must kill him to save youself. No more of such silly talk!” Lü Bu finally conceded and killed Dong Zhuo, this event is recorded completely in the biography of Dong Zhuo.[n 1] After that, Lü Bu was appointed by Wang Yun as General Who is Firm and Exerts Effort (fènwēi jiāngjūn 奮威將軍) with credentials to command, a status equaling that of three elder lords. Later he was recommended as Marquis of Wen (Wēn hóu 溫侯) for the joint handling of court affairs.

[1] Jiyinqi 幾音祈

 Wang Yun was too adamant to impose amnesty upon Xiliang unit, which caused Li Jue 李傕, Guo Si 郭汜 and other generals leading respective troops to march towards Chang'an. Lü Bu was so outmatched in the field that rebellious troops stormed Chang'an. With a retinue of several hundred men, Lü Bu was forced to march out via Wu Pass to seek refuge with Yuan Shu 袁術. Such plight happened no more than two months after Dong Zhuo's death. Yuan Shu denied Lü Bu a helping hand, knowing the latter's disloyalty despite the latter killing the tyrant to satisfy his vengeance, much to the latter's disappointment. Lü Bu had to lead his men to seek favor with Yuan Shao 袁紹 in the northern land, who took him in for the joint attack on Zhang Yan 張燕 in the Chang Hills. Zhang Yan had the command of more than 10.000 picked soldiers including several thousand cavalries. Lü Bu rode a good steed named Red Hare (Chìtú 赤菟) in the field where he fought with his trusted generals including Cheng Lian 成廉 and Wei Yue 魏越 heartily to rout his enemy troop.[1] Lü Bu took advantage of the victory to enlarge his troop, followed by his men's frequent pillages which caused Yuan Shao's suspicion and hatred. Later Lü Bu sensed Yuan Shao's displeasure before entering the latter's presence to ask for departure. Yuan Shao responded with approval but quickly realized that Lü Bu's departure might do him harm, so he dispatched several stout men to kill Lü Bu secretly in the night, only to receive the report that Lü Bu was not found. Lü Bu got informed of the abortive murder and hastily arrived in Henei commandery to joint hands with Zhang Yang. Yuan Shao was intent on killing Lü Bu with sending his soldiers, who dared not close in for the kill.

[1] Biography of Cao Man states: “it was widely spread:‘among men, there is Lü Bu; among horses, there is Red Hare.’”

 Zhang Miao 張邈, style name Mengzhuo 孟卓, was a native of Shouzhang county in Dongping commandery. He was so noted for his gallantry and generosity in earlier days that many bold spirits were willing to work for him. Cao Cao 曹操 and Yuan Shao were his friends. He was appointed by the court as Commandant of Cavalry thanks to his brilliant work, and before shortly was appointed as Grand Administrator of Chenliu 陳留. It was Cao Cao and Zhang Miao who first launched a war against Dong Zhuo, who led his unit to march into Chang'an to make troubles. Zhang Miao sent his general Wei Zi to fight with Cao Cao in the battle at Bian River. Yuan Shao was often criticised by Zhang Miao for his over-arrogance in the capacity of the leader of the allied army. Cao Cao refused to kill Zhao Miao despite Yuan Shao demanding him to do so. Instead Cao Cao berated Yuan Shao, “Mengzhuo is such my friend that anyway I should accommodate him. Moreover, now the realm is being convulsed with rebellious troops. How could we engage in the internecine feud!” Zhang Miao, learning of Cao Cao's plead, held the latter in more esteem than ever. Cao Cao told his families before leading the punitive expedition against Tao Qian, “If I perish in the field, all of you can seek refuge with Mengzhuo.” It turned out that Cao Cao returned victorious and then met Zhang Miao with tears in both's eyes. This was how they interacted with each other. Lü Bu, leaving from Yuan Shao, came to Zhang Yang before paying Zhang Miao a visit when they plighted mutual faith. Bitter anger flooded Yuan Shao's chest after he learned of it. Zhang Miao lived in constant fear of Cao Cao, sooner or later, doing away with himself for Yuan Shao.

 In the first year of Xingping 興平,[n 2] Cao Cao launched a fresh war against Tao Qian 陶謙 when the younger brother of Zhang Miao, Zhang Chao 張超, Chen Gong 陳宮 serving under Cao Cao, Deputy Director of the Secretariat, Xu Si 許汜 and Wang Kai 王楷 were discussing about how to turn back on Cao Cao.[1] Chen Gong persuaded Zhang Miao, “Now the realm is being divided up by many warlords. Your Excellency has many territories and soldiers, only to be attacked from four sides;[2] Your Excellency is worthy of a paragon, only to be controlled by others. Is it not a disgrace? Now Yanzhou City stands defenseless thanks to the better part of troop there being on the eastern campaign. Moreover, Lü Bu is valiant in combat. Now welcome him to occupy the vulnerable City with us, bid our time and act according to the circumstance, and our great cause may be consummated!” Zhang Miao nodded in approval. Cao Cao, on the point of leading the eastern campaign, entrusted the part of soldiers to defend Dongjun in Chen Gong's control. Accordingly, Chen Gong led these men to support Lü Bu as Protector of Yan province and then to occupy Puyang. In the end, neighboring counties quickly fell into Lü Bu's hands except for Ye city, Dong'er and Fan county.

[1] Authoritative Account (Diǎn lüè 典略) states:“Chen Gong, styled Gongtai, a native of Dongjun,was honest and unyielding. he made many acquaintances of many worthy men in earlier days. In times of trouble, he served for Cao Cao, but later became doubtful of the latter's character before leaving. Then he served for Lü Bu, who did not heed his advice.”
[2] Because of it's flat terrain the city of Chenliu was exposed to attacks from four sides.

 Cao Cao reversed his troop to fight Lü Bu fiercely at Puyang, only to lose the upper hand, but neither prevailed after more than one hundred days' stalement. There was a time when a major drought reigned, followed by the locust plague and a famine. Faced with such misery, people were forced into cannibalism. Lü Bu had to march eastward into Shanyang. In no more than two years, Cao Cao recovered the every lost land and then defeated Lü Bu at Jüye. Lü Bu had to flee eastward before finally taking refuge with Liu Bei 劉備. Zhang Miao fleed with Lü Bu and ordered his younger brother to defend Yongqiu with his families entrusted in care. Cao Cao besieged Yongqiu for several months before the seizure of it, followed by the massacre including Zhang Chao and his cared families. Zhang Miao turned to Yuan Shu for relief. Unfortunately, he was killed by his subordinates before entering Yuan Shu's presence.

 At that time, Liu Bei proclaimed himself as Protector of Xu province and stationed his troops at Xiapi, confronting Yuan Shu at Huai River. Lü Bu made Liu Bei as Inspector of Yu province and sent the latter to station at Xiaopei[4] though he once stormed Xiapi, where latter's wives and children lived. The loss of Xiapi forced Liu Bei flee to Haixi.[3] Yuan Shu sent an envoy with two hundred thousand bushels of grain and a secret letter describing his plan, thinking highly of Lü Bu who once killed Dong Zhuo to redeem the burning shame of the Yuans having been publicly executed[1] as well as being defeated Cao Cao at Puyang and Liu Bei at Xiapi. Jin Yuanxiu[2] whom Cao Cao once defeated at Fengqiu was also mentioned in Yuan Shu's letter.

[1] Yuan Huai , Yuan Ji, one elder brother to Yuan Shu, and other clan members, men and women, totaling more than twenty persons, had been publicly executed by Dong Zhuo's order.
[2] Authoritative Account states: “Yuan Xiu whose given name was Shang, a native of Jingzhao, was famed with his native Wei Xiufu and Wen Xiuju. He was made Inspector of Yang province during the earlier reign of Emperor Xian, when Cao Cao stationed his troops at Yang province. He earlier was in the service of Yuan Shu, who later committed traitorous crime by proclaiming himself as Emperor and intended to appoint Yuan Xiu as Grand Commandant. However, Yuan Xiu slandered Yuan Shu in secret, which made the latter quit the idea. During the earlier reign of Jian'an, Yuan Xiu fled and then was killed by Yuan Shu.”
[3] Haixi county under the jurisdiction of Guangling commandery, the Donghai sea.
[4] Gaozu of Han was a native of Fengpei, Sishui commandery. After he took the throne, Sishui was renamed Pei commandery, that is, Xiaopei.

 After that, Yuan Shu ordered his general Ji Ling 紀靈 to lead more than thirty thousand men, infantry and cavalry to attack Liu Bei, who had to seek help from Lü Bu. Some commanders said to Lü Bu, “general, you have long wished to get rid of Liu Bei. Now Yuan Shu is doing exactly what you want.” Lü Bu reasoned, “Not necessarily, if Yuan Shu occupy Xiaopei and then ally with Mount Tai commanders to the north, our position will be untenable. This is why I have to aid Liu Bei.” Therefore Lü Bu led thousands of foot soldiers and two hundred riders swiftly towards Xiaopei. Ji Ling got informed of this rescue before recalling his troops. The reinforcement was camped to the southwest of only one Li away before their leader sent someone to invite Ji Ling and his subordinates for a banquet, where guests and hosts were dining and wining with unbound delight. Lü Bu said to his guests, “Xuande is like my younger brother. Since he was attacked by all of you, how could I not come to his rescue. I prefer resolving conflicts to fighting.” Thus, Lü Bu ordered an attendant to have his halberd planted in the ground before the camp and said, “If I hit the small side blade[1] with one shot, both of you must call up the war; if I miss, both of you are free to return to the camps and prepare for battles.” Words still ring in the air, Lü Bu fitted the arrow to the bow and shot, a sure target. Commanders present marveled at his supernatural marksmanship. On the morrow, Lü Bu continued to feast with other commanders before calling up the war. Yuan Shu wanted to ally with Lü Bu to serve his own purpose by marriage-sealed alliance to which Lü Bu agreed.

[1] Rites of Zhou’s Records on the Examination of Craftsmanship states: “the halberd was two inches wide; Nei, namely, the handle below the blade four inches; Hu six inches; Yuan eight inches.” Zheng Notes stated: “Yuan referred to straight blade; Hu blade-flanked fork.” Small blade was exactly the said Hu, namely, blade-flanked fork.

 Chen Gui 陳珪, Chancellor of Xiaopei (Pèi xiāng 沛相), feared that marriage-sealed alliance would aggrandize their power and then wielded his persuasive power upon Lü Bu. The talk was in essence, “Cao Cao receives Emperor's mandate to be in charge of court administration and to pacify the realm by force. You, general, should work with him for the peace at large. But your marriage-sealed alliance with Yuan Shu would reduce you to a dishonorable fellow to your detriment.”[1] On hearing this, Lü Bu recalled Yuan Shu's denial which led him to deny that marriage by demanding his daughter back and binding Han Yin 韓胤 on yoke and in chains. Later this envoy was sent under guard to Xuchang for the public execution.

[1] Garden of Stories (Shuō Yuàn 说苑) states: “Duke Ling of Jin ordered the construction of Nine-storeyed Tower that called for hundreds of billions funding and warned his vassals against any remonstration. Su Xi asked for an audience. Duke Ling of Jin fitted an arrow to a bow and said to him, “Do you want to remonstrate?” Su Xi responded, “I, a humble vassal dare not. Instead I can pile up twelve chess pieces on top of which nine hen ovums are to be put.” Duke Ling of Jin said, “I have not seen this. show me.” Su Xi, with a solemn countenance and a firm purpose, piled up pieces below the hen ovums, which terrified all the subordinates present. Duke Ling of Jin exclaimed, “dangerous!” Su Xi responded, “a more dangerous thing at present.” Duke Ling of Jin got surprised, “I want to have a look at that.” Su Xi answered, “The construction of Nine-storeyed Tower must be completed more than three years, which will make it impossible for men to farm and women to weave. National treasury will run out; population decrease; officials defect; neighboring countries plan on attacking us.” The advice accepted, Duke Ling of Jin ordered the end of the construction.

 Chen Gui intended to send his son, Chen Deng 陳登 as an envoy to seal the alliance between Cao Cao and Lü Bu, but Lü Bu disapproved of this proposal. At that moment, an envoy sent by Cao Cao arrived to appoint Lü Bu as General on the Left (zuǒ jiāngjūn 左將軍) by Emperor's mandate. Lü Bu overjoyed in spite of himself and ordered Chen Deng to start the journey with a letter describing his gratitude to Xuchang. Chen Deng entered Cao Cao's presence and suggested Cao Cao do away with Lü Bu quickly by describing the warrior as a foolhardy and disloyal sort. Cao Cao responded, “Lü Bu harbored a wolf-like ambition who must be gotten rid of sooner.[1] You are the right person to do this.” Immediately Cao Cao raised Chen Gui's annual pay to two thousand bushels and appointed Chen Deng as Grand Administrator of Guangling (Guǎnglíng tàishǒu 廣陵太守). On the departure, Cao Cao held Chen Deng's hands and said, “I entrust all the affairs of the eastern region to your care.” Chen Deng was ordered to sow dissention among Lü Bu's troops to coordinate within. At first Lü Bu wanted to be appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou through Chen Deng's good offices, only to receive a negative feedback.How could he not be angered? He broke the corner of the table with his halberd and cursed, “That your father proposed the alliance with Cao Cao led to my breaking the marriage-sealed alliance with Yuan Shu. Now I am least benefited while you and your father rise to the power. I was took in! Tell me how you turned in good words for me when you met Cao Cao?” Chen Deng remained composed, “when I saw Cao Cao, I told him to provide for you as to provide for a tiger that needs eat its fill of meat lest hunger drive him to bite someone.” “Not necessarily” Cao Cao smiled with an answer, “I must provide for Lü Bu as if he were a hunting hawk that needs be kept hungry when hares and foxes are running about. Well fed, he will just soar up contented.” This is how we talked about you. Thus, Lü Bu was pacified.

[1] The Commentary of Zuo (Zuǒ zhuán 左傳) states, “When Boshi was born, Su Xiang's mother came over to see and then heard him crying like wolf-howling, assuming he would harbor a wolf-like ambition.”

 Yuan Shu got informed of Lü Bu denying that marriage as well as killing his envoy before joining forces with Han Xian 韓暹, Yang Feng 楊奉 and other warlords against Lü Bu under the head of his general Zhang Xun 張勳. Lü Bu alarmed and rebuked Chen Gui, “Since you bring upon such disaster, you have to settle it down!” Chen Gui responded, “this is just a work[1] without a careful[2] and well-coordinated plan like scattered chickens.[3] Just send my son, Chen Deng to disintegrate them.” Lü Bu adopted this countermeasure to talk Han Xian and Yang Feng out of helping traitorous Yuan Shu by commending his merit of killing Dong Zhuo, instead joining forces with him to attack Yuan Shu on the condition that the wherewithal including weapons is provided by him. Thus, Han Xian and Yang Feng fought with Lü Bu to take Zhang Xun a great toll, Yuan Shu's wounded and drowned men beyond reckoning.

[1] The pronunciation of 卒 is qiānhūfǎn 千忽反.
[2] 素 means always.
[3] Strategies of the Warring States (Zhànguó cè 戰國策) states, King Hui of Qin said to Han Quanzi 寒泉子: “Su Qin does too much injustice to our kingdom! he wants to rely upon his persuasive power to change the other six kingdoms' strategies into allying against our kingdom. The six Kingdoms are situated to the east of Hangu Pass. Such device is no more than the strength of scattered chickens.”

 At the time Mount Tai commander Zang Ba 臧霸 and others stormed Ju city 莒城 after promising to bribe Lü Bu. The promise, however, was undelivered in time, which prompted Lü Bu to demand in person. Gao Shun 高順,[1] a general under Lü Bu remonstrated: “Your Highness's military prestige is felt throughout the realm. Whatever will be yours for Your Highness's asking. Why come to demand bribes in person? If failure incurs, Your Highness's reputation will be spoiled.” To this advice Lü Bu paid no heed. Upon Lü Bu's arrival at Ju city, Zhang Ba and others dishonored their promise by mounting tight defense, which led to Lü Bu's fruitless visit. Gao Shun is a man of honesty, dignified and tacit, leading his unit in good array to fight every victorious battle. However, his lord, Lü Bu, was fickle-minded. Gao Shun advised him once and again: “Your Highness lacks enough deliberations before making any move, and is swayed by considerations of gain and loss. Futher, Your Highness is not wary of speeches. How could failures be less?” Lü Bu knew of his loyalty but seldom took his loyal advice.

[1] Records of Heroes stated: “Gao Shun was free from indulgent drinking and excess bribe-taking. The more than seven hundred soldiers in his command, so called one-thousand force, were known as "Vanguard Batallion". Lü Bu later treated Gao Shun too badly to permit the latter to continue the command, but resentment did not grow on Gao Shun.”

 During the third year of Jian'an, Lü Bu again followed Yuan Shu, and ordered Gao Shun to attack Liu Bei at Xiaopei. The battle's victor was Gao Shun. Thus, Cao Cao dispatched Xiahou Dun 夏侯惇 to relieve Liu Bei.[1] Gao Shun again emerged as a victor. Cao Cao led a punitive expedition against Lü Bu to siege the latter at Xiapi. Before mounting intensive attack, Cao Cao sent a letter to Lü Bu in which advantages and disadvantages were meted out. Lü Bu intended to submit to Cao Cao, but Chen Gong and others, on bad terms with Cao Cao, deemed the surrender a bad move and advised Lü Bu: “Cao Cao's force having come a long distance could not hold on too long. It is in the best interest of Your Highness to lead cavalry out of the city while I mount tight defense inside. If Cao Cao's troops attack Your Highness, I will attack them behind; if they attack the city, Your Highness will raid their camps. In this way, in no more than several months, their supplies will be used up, vulnerable to one attack.” Lü Bu approved of this plan. However, Lü Bu's primary wife cautioned: “Once Cao Cao treated Chen Gong with all sincerity, only to see him turn to Your Highness. Now Your Highness lavished less favor upon Chen Gong. Entrusting the safety of the whole city including Your Highness's wives and daughters in his care before leading troops outside would be the worst move to make. If any eventuality occurred, I, Your Highness's humble wife would not remain chaste!” Thus, Lü Bu dismissed that life-saving plan. Instead Lü Bu sent an envoy to seek relief from Yuan Shu while he led thousands of riders out of the city as a cover, only to be driven back. Lü Bu had no other choice but to mount tight defense. The hope of relief from Yuan Shu seemed less and less likely.

[1] Records of Wei (Wèi zhì 魏志) stated: “Xiahou Dun, styled Furang, was a native of Qiao county, Pei fiefdom. At the age of twenty-four, he learned something from his instructor, who was humiliated by someone. He furiously killed the offender. Later he led troops to attack Lü Bu, only to lose his left eye hit by an astray arrow. He was appointed as Grand Administrator of Chenliu and Jiyin as well as General Who Establishes Might. Cao Cao often granted him the honor of taking the same carriage and the permission to visit his inner chambers, prizing him above the other generals.”

 Cao Cao diverted Xi and Si River to overwhelm the city for such three months that Lü Bu was alienated from his subordinates. His general Hou Cheng redeemed his prized horses which were grazed and stolen by the guests. Hou Cheng intended to celebrate by drinking brewed wine and eating meat with several commanders, and first came to talk to his leader: “It all depended on Your Highness's prestige that the stolen horses were recovered. The brewed wine for celebration of several commanders is first presented to Your Highness.” Lü Bu angered: “How dare you brew wine for celebration on the heels of my ban! Do you intend to inebriate me for ulterior motives?” Hou Cheng was so seized with fright and hatred that he collaborated with several commanders to bind Lü Bu as well as Chen Gong and Gao Shun for submission. Thus, Lü Bu was marched toward White Gate Tower.[1] Shortly Before, the city was on the verge of the fall, when Lü Bu's commanders felt reluctant to sever their leader's head as a token of submitting to Cao Cao. Lü Bu said to Cao Cao: “The realm would be soon pacified.” Cao Cao asked his chief prisoner to elaborate who offered a suggestion that his willingness to serve as a cavalry commander while Cao Cao led infantry to unite the realm. Lü Bu looked around to see Liu Bei and said: “Today you are an honored guest while I am a captive. Why not turn in a good word for me?” Lü Bu complained of being tightened up. Cao Cao smiled: “To tie a tiger like this,” and ordered the rope loosened. Liu Bei said: “It can not be done. Have you forgotten what had happened to his past patrons, Dong Zhuo and Ding Yuan?” Cao Cao shook his head.[2] Lü Bu looked at Liu Bei and cursed: “Long ears villain of all most faithless!”[3] Cao Cao said to Chen Gong: “For all your shrewd plans, how could you fall into my hands?” Cheng Gong pointed at Lü Bu: “Had he taken my advice, we might never have been captured.” Cao Cao said: “What of your mother and your wives and children?” Chen Gong respond: “I heard that the one who governed with filial piety would not injure others' parents, and the one who ruled humanely would not cut off the sacrifices from others' descendents.” Chen Gong strode brusquely down the tower without turning back and stretched his neck for the execution.[4] Cao Cao had such lingering affection for his past friend that he wept over the death. Lü Bu, Chen Gong and Gao shun were together strangulated and then beheaded, their head being hung up in the Xuchang's market as a warning.

[1] Records of Northern Campaign of Emperor Wu of Song (Sòng Wǔ běizhēng jì 宋武北征記) states: “There were three well-defended gate towers of Xiapi. Lü Bu personally defended the main gate tower which was four li around. Cao Cao captured Lü Bu at White Gate Tower, namely, the main gate tower.” Commentary on the Waterways Classic by Li Yuan stated: “The southern gate tower referred to White Gate Tower, where Chen Gong was seized by Cao Cao.”
[2] Du Yu's commentary to The Spring and Autumn Annals states: “Chin referred to shaking head.” Its pronunciation was Wuganfan.
[3] Records of Shu (Shǔ zhì 蜀志) states: “Liu Bei had such long ears that they could be seen by himself.”
[4] The Spring and Autumn Annals states: “The patriarchal cause of Duke Huan of Qi only lasted for three generations.”

Conclusion [to HHS 75][]

 It was not necessarily to be honored as a Protector for the blessings to follow,[1] nor to be bound to illusory gains. Yuan Shu was too dying to become an Emperor while Lü Bu was so disloyal and unhonourable that he fell at White Gate Tower.

[1] Wang Mang, the usurper of Former Han, changed the name of Yizhou into that of Yong region.

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  • Was not an "all-brawn-no-brains" warrior. Was talented in fighting as well as leading.

Fact vs. Fiction[]


  • Ding Yuan was not Lü Bu's adoptive father.
  • …it was not Li Su who convinced Lü Bu to kill Ding Yuan and join Dong Zhuo.
  • …it is not known how Lü Bu was convinced in to joining Dong Zhuo. However, it's safe to say he wasn't offered the Red Hare horse.
  • …Lü Bu did not duel Liu Bei, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu all at once.
  • …Lü Bu did not betray Dong Zhuo because of Diaochan. His affair with a maid, and his guilty conscience that came with it, was just one of the many reasons.
  • …Lü Bu did have a daughter, but her name was not Lü Lingqi. Her real name is not recorded.


  1. GJCM notes: the biography of Dong Zhuo is in chapter 72 of the History of the Later Han.
  2. GJCM notes: the first year of Xingping is 194. Xingping means “Prosperity and Peace”.