Gongjin's Campaign Memorials
Gongjin's Campaign Memorials

Lü Meng 呂蒙, in his youth, only cared about martial achievements but as he matured he studied extensively and became one of the most competent strategists during the Three Kingdom era. Lü Meng was also well known for his treatment of his fellow soldiers and state, Lü Meng would put the interest of both before his own welfare; that he would campaign against Guan Yu even though he was sick is a testament to this fact.


When he was young, Lü Meng and his mother went south to stay with his sister and her husband. Deng Dang served under Sun Ce a would often be sent out to fight Shanyue or bandits. When Lü Meng was only 15 or 16, he followed Deng Dang out to fight bandits. When Deng Dang found out, he tried to tell Lü Meng to return, but Lü Meng wouldn't obey him.

When Lü Meng's mother heard he had gone to fight bandits, she was furious. But Lü Meng said to her: "One cannot stay poor forever. But if by chance I gain merit and honour in something, fortune and prestige would come. As they say, ‘if you don’t go deep into the tiger’s den, how can you hope to catch a tiger cub?'" And she relented.

A subordinate officer of Deng Dang was disrespectful to Lü Meng because Lü Meng was young and inexperienced. He said: "What can this nestling do? He's nothing but fresh meat." The officer continued insulting Lü Meng and one day he snapped. Lü Meng killed the officer and fled to the home of the village elder, Zheng Zhang (鄭長), for refuge. Later, Lü Meng turned himself in to Colonel Yuan Xiong (袁雄) who relayed the story to Sun Ce. Sun Ce was intrigued, so he asked to see Lü Meng. Evidently, Lü Meng impressed Sun Ce because he assigned Lü Meng to his personal entourage.

A few years later, Deng Dang died and Zhang Zhao recommended Lü Meng replace him. Thus Lü Meng was made a Senior Major.

Service Under Sun Quan[]

When Sun Quan became the leader of Wu, he wanted to restructure the army. He decided he would merge the smaller and less impressive divisions with larger ones. Lü Meng borrowed money and used it to purchase impressive clothing and armour. When it came time for Sun Quan's inspection, Lü Meng's forces stood out, because of this not only did Lü Meng keep his command but he had additional divisions merged with his.

Lü Meng aided Sun Quan in subduing Wei Lan's rebellion in Danyang (丹楊). He was promoted to Commandant Who Pacifies the North and made Chief of Guangde (廣德).

In the beginning of 208 A.D., Sun Quan led another attack against Huang Zu. Huang Zu attempted to block the river, but the Wu vanguard forces made a path through. Huang Zu then sent out his Chief Controller, Chen Jiu, to lead his fleet. Lü Meng urged the vanguard forward and personally killed Chen Jiu. The soldiers of Wu kept their momentum and pushed their way to the city. When Huang Zu heard news of Chen Jiu's death, he abandoned the city and fled. The forces of Wu pursued and caught him. Sun Quan praised Lü Meng for the victory, which he attributed to the rapid defeat of Chen Jiu. Lü Meng was promoted to General of the Household Who Traverses the Open Country and rewarded with 10 million in coin.

Later that same year, Cao Cao invaded Wu. Along with the rest of Wu, Lü Meng helped defeat Cao Cao at Wulin (烏林), then pursued the Wei forces to Nan commandery, besieging Cao Ren in Jiangling. Zhou Yu gave Gan Ning command of the vanguard to march on Yiling. Unfortunately, Cao Ren focused his forces on Gan Ning's small force, so Gan Ning was in a dangerous position and in dire need of assistance. The generals didn't think they had sufficient forces to lend assistance, but Lü Meng said: "Leave Ling Tong at Jiangling. If you and I go we can break the siege and do away with the danger, and it will not take long. I guarantee Ling Tong can hold out for ten days." Zhou Yu and Cheng Pu agreed, and so Ling Tong was left to guard the main camp.

On the way to rescue Gan Ning, Lü Meng had another thought. Meng predicted the route Cao Ren's forces would take to retreat and asked for 300 men to chop down trees to block the path. That way, he said, Cao Ren's cavaliers would be forced to abandon their mounts in order to retreat. The Wu forces continued on to Yiling to do battle with Cao Ren, over half of the enemy forces were wiped out. The remaining enemies attempted to flee during the night, however, they headed to the blocked road and the cavaliers were forced leave their mounts. The Wu soldiers pressed the enemy hard and recovered 300 horses.

Cao Ren fled across the river back to Jiangling and the Wu forces followed, setting up a base camp across from Cao Ren's position. The forces of Wu continued to besiege Cao Ren for a year until he was forced to retire, so Jing province was seized. Lü Meng was elevated to Lieutenant-General and appointed Chief of Xunyang (尋陽).

Xi Su, an officer from Yi province, brought his forces to Wu to surrender.[n 1] Zhou Yu thought that Xi Su's soldiers should be added to Lü Meng's command. However, Lü Meng thought Xi Su had shown great courage and admired that he had come so far. Lü Meng insisted that Xi Su's troops remain with him. Sun Quan thought Lü Meng's words were good and left Xi Su's men under his command.

Lü Meng and Lu Su[]

When he was younger, Lü Meng prized himself on his martial skill and didn't put any effort into studying. So, Sun Quan said to him: "Now you have an official position, you must study."

But Lü Meng brushed him off, saying: "In the military, I have many duties. I'm afraid I don't have the time to be studying."

To which Sun Quan replied: "I am not asking you to plough through the classics like some academic. Just browse a little, to get some idea what happened in the past. You say you have too many other things to do, but you cannot be as busy as I am. I am always reading books, and I believe they have a great deal to do with my success. You should read Sun Zi, the Six Stratagems, the Zuo Chronicles, the Tales of the States, and the Three Histories. Confucius said: 'I could not eat every day and not sleep every night, and spend it thinking. But that would be useless, far better I study in addition.'[n 2] Cao Cao also says he is fond of learning. Would you alone not seek to better yourself?" Lü Meng could not refute Sun Quan's argument and took up studying. He eventually found his knowledge even exceeded that of long-term scholars.

Zhou Yu died shortly after the defeat of Cao Ren, and Lu Su assumed his command. As Lu Su was heading to his new station, he passed by where Lü Meng was stationed and it was suggested he pay him a visit. Now, Lu Su had met Lü Meng long ago, but he was disappointed that he was all brawn and no brain so Lu Su did not want to pay him a visit. Someone said that Lü Meng was rising in prominence, so at the very least he deserved the courtesy of a visit. So Lu Su did so.

The men feasted and drank their fill and Lu Su asked Lü Meng: "You have a heavy responsibility; you are neighbour to Guan Yu. What sort of strategies do you have to prepare for the unexpected?"

Lü Meng said to him: "I'll do whatever the situation calls for. Wu and Shu-Han may be one family at the moment, but Guan Yu is like a bear and tiger both. I cannot be certain of my security here." With that, he gave Lu Su five strategies for combatting Guan Yu. Lu Su was stunned, he rose from his seat and clapped Lü Meng on the back, and said: "I had always thought you simply a man of military might, but now you are quite brilliant. No longer the same Ah-Meng from Wu."[n 3]

Lü Meng replied: "When gentlemen have been separated as little as three days, they should look carefully how each has changed. Why, Lu Su, did you take so long to notice?" Lu Su was most impressed by Lü Meng, he paid respects to his mother and from that day on they were close friends.

Now, Lü Meng was stationed near three other officers: Cheng Dang (成當), Song Ting (宋定) and Xu Gu (徐顧). Unfortunately, they all died[n 4], and their next of kin were too young to assume their command, so Sun Quan gave the troops to Lü Meng. But Lü Meng adamantly opposed this, he thought the three officers had worked hard for the betterment of the state, and although their next of kin were young, their legacy should still be preserved. He sent three letters to Sun Quan to make his point which Quan accepted. Lü Meng then chose teachers to instruct the youngsters. It was to this extent that Lü Meng cared about his men.

Wei appointed Xie Qi (謝奇) to be the Minister of Agriculture at Qichun (蘄春). He set up farming colonies at Wan and would often raid the borders of Wu. Lü Meng tried to persuade Xie Qi to defect, but Xie Qi would not listen[n 5]. Instead, Lü Meng watched and waited for his opportunity to strike. When the time was right, he launched a surprise raid and Xie Qi fled. A number of Xie Qi's officers and their families decided to defect.

In the latter part of 212 A.D., Sun Quan heard word that Cao Cao was planning an attack and so he led his forces out to repel him[2]. Lü Meng followed Sun Quan to repel Cao Cao. Lü Meng offered numerous stratagems including urging Sun Quan to construct a fortifications around the confluence of Ruxu[n 6] and Yangzi rivers. The other generals all said: "We climb the bank to attack the enemy, and we wade in the water to board our ships; what use are land defences?"[n 7]

To which Lü Meng replied: "Soldiers may win or lose; there is never a 100% chance of victory. If something unexpected should happen and the enemy press us closely and we are overwhelmed before reaching the shore, how would we enter our boats?" Sun Quan agreed with Lü Meng and so Ruxu Fortress, a fortified dock, was built on the northern bank of the Yangzi river. Therefore, the defences prepared were extremely good, Cao Cao could not breach them and had to retreat.

Cao Cao dispatched Zhu Guang (朱光) to be Grand Administrator of Lujiang. He camped at Wan (皖) and established great rice fields. Zhu Guang also made contact with local bandit leaders and convinced them to strike at Wu within their borders. Lü Meng said to Sun Quan: "The fields of Wan are most fertile. Once they are brought under cultivation, our enemy's military strength is sure to increase. We must destroy them quickly."

In May of 214 A.D., Sun Quan brought his forces to attack Wan. The officers wanted to raise earthen mounds and prepare siege engines, but Lü Meng said: "If we make engines and earthworks, it will be days before they are ready. The city will be prepared, a relief force will arrive, and we shall have gained nothing. Furthermore, the swollen rivers have helped us move in, but if we stay too long the water will drop and the return journey will be difficult. In my humble opinion the whole affair can become dangerous. Look at this city now: it cannot be very secure. If we attack fiercely on all sides at once, we can take it by storm. Then we can go back while the water is still high. This is the way to certain success." Sun Quan approved.

Lü Meng recommended Gan Ning take the vanguard and storm the walls, while he provided support with his elite troops. The attack began at dawn and Lü Meng personally beat the drums, and by breakfast, Wan had fallen. When Zhang Liao heard about the attack he set out. But had only made it to Jiashi (夾石) by the time Wan had fallen. Lü Meng was enfeoffed as Grand Administrator of Lujiang and all the captured troops and horses were placed under Lü Meng's command. He received a further 600 men for agricultural colonies in Xunyang and 30 officials.

As Lü Meng was returning to Xunyang, bandits in Luling (廬陵) rose in rebellion. Several officers tried, but none could put a stop to them. Sun Quan said: "Even 100 hunting birds are not equal to one osprey." So he sent Lü Meng to put down the bandits. Lü Meng punished the chief culprits and freed the captives.

When Liu Bei invaded Yi province, he left Guan Yu to guard Jing province. Sun Quan ordered Lü Meng go west and seize the southern commanderies of Jing: Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang. Hearing about the approach of Wu, both Changsha and Guiyang immediately submitted; only the Grand Administrator of Lingling, Hao Pu (郝普), did not. In response, Liu Bei came east to Gong'an (公安) and sent Guan Yu south to contend for the commanderies.

Sun Quan brought his forces to Lukou (陸口)[n 8] He commanded Lu Su take 10,000 men to repel Guan Yu at Yiyang (益陽). Additionally, he sent a summon to Lü Meng, telling him to abandon Lingling and bring assistance to Lu Su. However, when Lü Meng received the edict, he did not announce it, instead he summoned his officers and told them they were to attack Lingling at dawn. On his way to Lingling, Lü Meng had picked up Deng Xuanzhi (鄧玄之), a friend of Hao Pu's, and he planned to use him to trick Hao Pu. After the meeting, he privately said to Hao Pu:

"Hao Pu has heard tales of loyalty and honour, and he hopes to emulate them. He does not realise, however, the situation he is dealing with. Now, Liu Bei is besieged in Hanzhong by Xiahou Yuan, Guan Yu is in Nan commandery and Sun Quan is close upon him. In both places their fortunes hang in the balance, and even to survive requires more energy than they can afford. How can they possibly find extra resources to deal with this part of the world? I have reckoned my forces and made careful plans for attack. The city will fall in less than a day. When the city is destroyed and Hao Pu is dead, what use is that to anyone? And isn't it sad that his mother, now approaching the age of a hundred years, may be done to death at the same time? I do not believe his people have heard anything from outside. They thought they would be relieved, but now they have come to this. You go and see him, and tell him what will happen."

Deng Xuanzhi went to see Hao Pu to relay what Lü Meng had told him. Hao Pu was afraid and agreed to surrender. Lü Meng had four generals take 100 men to seize each gate of the city as soon as Hao Pu surrendered. As Hao Pu left the city, Lü Meng took him by the hand and led him to his boat. Lü Meng showed Hao Pu the missive from Sun Quan, clapping him on the back and laughing. When Hao Pu saw the missive he was deeply ashamed. Lü Meng left Sun Jiao[n 9] to oversee Lingling and headed off to rendezvous with Lu Su.

Sun Quan and Liu Bei arranged a peace treaty and split Jing province in half along the Xiang river, Shu-Han getting the west and Wu getting the west. Hao Pu and others loyal to Shu-Han were allowed to go west. Xunyang and Yangxin (陽新) were added to Lü Meng's fief.

In 215 A.D., the forces of Wu attacked Hefei. The forces of Wu were badly defeated by Zhang Liao and forced to flee. Lü Meng and Ling Tong risked their lives to ensure Sun Quan could escape.

In 217 A.D., Cao Cao brought a large force to attack Ruxu Fortress. Sun Quan selected Lü Meng to command the forces. Lü Meng set 10,000 crossbowmen upon the fortifications to resist Cao Cao. Thus, Cao Cao's vanguard could not establish a foothold and Cao Cao was forced to withdraw. Lü Meng was promoted to Left Protector of the Army and General with the Majesty of a Tiger.

Lü Meng's Seizure of Jing[]

In 217 A.D., Lu Su died. Lu Su's entire command of 10,000 soldiers and horses were all shifted to Lü Meng[n 10]. He was also given the additional title of Grand Administrator of Hanchong (漢昌), and had Xiajuan (下雋), Liuyang (劉陽), Hanchang and Zhouling (州陵) added to his fief.

While Lu Su was alive, he had always strongly advocated the Three Kingdoms situation which had resulted in the alliance at Chibi and the "lending" of Jing province to Liu Bei. He believed it was important to remain friendly with Guan Yu so long as the threat from the north existed. However, Lü Meng did not feel that way. He knew Guan Yu to be arrogant and power hungry. And eventually Shu-Han would turn on Wu and Guan Yu having territory upstream from Wu gave Shu-Han the advantage. When Lü Meng took over, he doubled the diplomatic efforts to befriend Guan Yu.

Lü Meng plotted in secret with Sun Quan: "Order General Who Subdues the Caitiffs Sun Jiao to defend Nan commandery, Pan Zhang to garrison Baidi and seng Jiang Qin with 10,000 soldiers to raid along the Yangzi. While I seize Xiangyang. With this, why should we fear Cao Cao? And why rely on Guan Yu? Moreover, Guan Yu and Liu Bei boast of their pretended power, but they are unstable and cannot be trusted. That Guan Yu has not turned east against us yet is only because of your sage-like talents, and that I and others are still here. Should you fail to act while we are strong, how will Wu manage when we are gone?" Sun Quan was most pleased.

[There is also an additional speech made by Lü Meng but it makes little sense.]Sun Quan also asked Lü Meng's thoughts on taking Xu province, Meng said: "Cao Cao is now far north in Hebei. He has just defeated the Yuan and needs to settle You and Ji provinces, he is too busy to look east. I hear the troops guarding Xu are too few, so if you go there you can take them. However, the terrain there is ideal for cavalry. If you take Xu now, we can be certain Cao Cao will come to contest it within 10 days. Even if you stationed 70-80,000 troops there, it would still be cause for concern. The best thing to do is take Guan Yu and seize all the Yangzi. You would extend the state even further, and those lands can be easily defended."[n 11]

In 219 A.D., Guan Yu attacked Fan Castle. However, Guan Yu kept a large contingent of soldier in reserve at Gong'an because he suspected Lü Meng might plot against him. Lü Meng sent a memorial saying: "Guan Yu has attacked Fan, but he has kept many soldiers in reserve. He must fear I will strike his rear. I am often sick. I ask to bring some of my forces back to Jianye; we can say it is to recover from my illness. When Guan Yu hears of it he will certainly call his reserve troops to Xiangyang. If a great army sails along the Yangzi day and night and attack while it is undefended, Nan commandery and Guan Yu can be captured."

So, Lü Meng said he was sick and Sun Quan issued a public edict commanding Lü Meng to return. Guan Yu heard the news and believed it to be true, then he summoned a part of his reserve troops to march on Fan. Wei sent Yu Jin to relieve Fan, but a severe flood destroyed the Wei forces and Yu Jin, along with 10,000 people and horses, was captured. Probably a result of the flooding, Guan Yu found himself short of supplies, so he raided the Wu storehouse at Xiangguan (湘關).

When Sun Quan heard about Xiangguan, he mobilised the forces of Wu with Lü Meng as the vanguard. Sun Quan was going to appoint Sun Jiao as joint Grand Controller with Lü Meng, but Lü Meng was strongly opposed to this. He said: "If you think Sun Jiao is the right man, use him. If you think I am suitable, use me. Once before, when Zhou Yu and Cheng Pu were joint controllers. Zhou Yu had the deciding voice, but Cheng Pu shared command because of his seniority. They frequently disagreed, they almost ruined everything."[n 12][3] Sun Quan understood and gave full command to Lü Meng, with Sun Jiao being in charge of the support force.

Guan Yu had set up outposts along the river as a precaution against a Wu invasion, so Lü Meng disguised some of his men as traders and concealed others in the barges. Lü Meng's disguised troops advanced along the river, covertly taking each outpost so the main forces could enter Nan commandery without alerting Guan Yu.

At Gong'an, General Fu Shiren blocked their path. Lü Meng ordered Yu Fan to convince Shi Ren to surrender. Yu Fan went to the city gates and asked to see Shiren, but Shiren refused to parley. Yu Fan then wrote Shiren a letter so persuasive Shiren chose to surrender. Lü Meng then brought Shiren to convince Mi Fang to surrender Jiangling.

Lü Meng's forces entered Jiangling and accepted the surrender of the people, including the families of Guan Yu and his men. Lü Meng comforted the people, he ordered his men to treat the people with respect and not disturb their homes or take their belongings. A soldier from Lü Meng's home commandery who took a hat from one of the villagers to protect his armour from the rain. The soldier maintained that he had only done it because the armour was property of the state, but Lü Meng had no choice but declare him guilty. Weeping, Lü Meng had to execute the soldier for violating military law. The soldiers were shocked and afraid, they would not even pick up items discarded by the wayside.

From dawn till dusk, Lü Meng would visit the elderly and ask if they lacked anything. If people were sick, he would give them medicine. If they were starving and cold, he would give them food and clothing. The valuables and possessions within Guan Yu's estate were sealed until Sun Quan arrived.

When Guan Yu heard news of Jiangling's fall, he quickly headed south. Guan Yu sent messengers ahead to seek news from Lü Meng. Lü Meng would take the messengers around the city. The villagers would ask for news of their family and give letters for the messenger to bring back. When Guan Yu's soldiers heard their family members were treated even better than while under Guan Yu they lost the heart to fight.

Guan Yu fled to Maicheng (麥城) then west to Zhangxiang (漳鄉). Guan Yu's soldiers abandoned him in droves, all surrendering to Wu. As Lü Meng had secretly planned before, Pan Zhang and Zhu Ran had been stationed at Baidi and they moved to cut Guan Yu's escape. Guan Yu and his son, Guan Ping, were captured and Jing province was taken.

Lü Meng was enfeoffed as Grand Administrator of Nan and Marquis of Canling (孱陵) and rewards 100 million in coin and 500 catties of gold. Lü Meng tried to refuse the rewards but Sun Quan would not allow it. However, before he could take the title, Lü Meng's sickness returned. Sun Quan recruited doctors from across the land in search of a cure, he would reward 1000 gold to anyone who could cure Lü Meng's illness. Sun Quan would constantly monitor Lü Meng's progress; if he seemed to improve, Sun Quan would become merry; if he grew worse, Sun Quan would be unable to sleep.

Lü Meng's health seemed to improve so Sun Quan offered a general amnesty, but the illness soon took a turn for the worse. In 219 A.D., Lü Meng died at the age of 42.

Lü Meng's Legacy[]

When Lü Meng died, Sun Quan was grief-stricken and refused to eat. Before Lü Meng had died, he stored all the gold and treasure rewarded him by Sun Quan, upon his death he wished it to be returned to the state. When Sun Quan heard this, he became even more sorrowful. Lü Meng had not wanted his wealth wasted on a funeral, but Sun Quan wanted to show him the respect he deserved. Lü Meng's funeral was the grandest in the history of Wu.

Years later, Sun Quan was having a discussion with Lu Xun about Zhou Yu, Lu Su and Lü Meng. About Zhou Yu, Sun Quan said:"Zhou Yu was brave and fierce, his courage and skill surpassing all others. So he defeated Cao Cao and extended our territory into Jing province. He stands alone without compare."

About Lu Su, Sun Quan said: "Lu Su was introduced to me by Zhou Yu. I spoke with him at a banquet and he talked of the great plan for imperial rule. This was one thing that caused me pleasure. Later, Cao Cao seized Liu Zong's power and boasted how he would lead hundreds of thousands of sailors and soldiers together down the river. When I asked my generals what I should do, not one of them had anything to suggest, while Zhang Zhao and Qin Song both said that we should send tribute and receive Cao Cao. Lu Su, however, argued against them, that we should do no such thing. He urged me to call upon Zhou Yu to take command of the army to face and attack the invaders. This was the second occasion that caused me pleasure. Later, he encouraged me to cede territory to Liu Bei, but this was his only weakness, and not enough to discount his two fine actions. The Duke of Zhou did not look for everything in one man, so I disregard Lu Su's shortcomings and remember only his greatness. I always compare him to Deng Yu.[n 13]"

And about Lü Meng, Sun Quan said: "When Lü Meng was young, I used to say that he was not the man to hesitate, no matter whether a task might prove difficult or easy. He was brave and gallant, and as he grew to maturity he became an increasingly good scholar. He was particularly good at strategy and schemes, and for that I would put him equal to Zhou Yu; only in argument and debate did he fall short. It was Lü Meng who planned the destruction of Guan Yu, and in that he was better than Lu Su. Whenever I wrote to him, Lu Su would always reply that, 'When an emperor is coming to power, someone must clear the path for him. Guan Yu is of no concern.' But this was only because Lu Su realised that he could not cope with Guan Yu; so he showed off and talked big. Yet I can excuse him and I do not blame him. Furthermore, in his management of armies in camp, Lu Su never failed to have his orders obeyed, and whatever he prohibited always stopped. In territory under his command none could evade their duties, and things dropped on the roads were not picked up. He was truly a fine commander."


  • Sons
    • Meng Ba (蒙霸) - Inherits Lü Meng's noble rank, given 300 households to defend Lü Meng's tomb
    • Meng Cong (蒙琮) - Elder brother of Ba. Inherited the noble rank after Ba died.[n 14]
    • Meng Mu (蒙睦) - Younger brother of Cong. Was heir after Cong died.
  • Brother-in-Laws
    • Deng Dang (鄧當) - Married to his older sister.


  1. Yiling was close to the border of Yi. Xi Su must have considered Wu's victory over Cao Cao made them strong favourites to unite China, or some such.
  2. I believe he is making a point about a balanced life.
  3. The Ah-Meng should probably interpreted to mean 'simple Meng.'
  4. Wei 9 Not sure how three officers die simultaneously, there was no major military action at this time. They may have died in 209 A.D., but Lü Meng wasn't aware of the facts until he was assigned this post.
  5. I assume this means defection, but I suppose it could also mean he intended to bait then capture Xie Qi.
  6. The Ruxu river flows south from Lake Chao. Hefei is just north of the lake (until it is moved).
  7. The fortress is on the northern shore. Presumably, they are talking about offensive actions, they expect to have the initiative in battle not be on the back foot. So they can quickly raid Wei then retreat.
  8. Approx. 150 km east of Gong'an and separated by marshlands.
  9. Written as Sun He, but Sun He died many years before. Scholar Zhu Bangheng suggested it to be Sun Jiao, who held command in the area and was an associate of Lü Meng.
  10. Initially offered to Yan Jun, but he turned it down because he said he lacked understanding of military affairs.
  11. There are several problems with this speech. Cao Cao destroyed the Yuans in 205 A.D. and Guan Yu wouldn't rise to prominence till at least 212 A.D. Also, if this did occur in 217 A.D., Sun Quan would only recently have been badly defeated at Hefei by a small force, so he would not underestimate the north. Only Lü Meng's last sentence makes any real sense, capturing Jing is most beneficial.
  12. Reference to the battle of Chibi.
  13. Was a trusted advisor of Emperor Guangwu, but did suffer defeats, so he was not perfect.
  14. Presumedly, was a half-brother to Ba and born not of Lü Meng's primary wife.

Fact vs. Fiction[]


  • …Lü Meng did not fake illness, but was truly ill when he destroyed Guan Yu in 219.
  • …Lü Meng died of the illness, and not by Guan Yu's spirit.


  1. SGZ: Biography of Lü Meng. Translation: Kongming's Archives
  2. SGZ: Biography of Sun Quan. Translation: Scholars of Shen Zhou
  3. SGZ: Biography of Sun Jiao.


  • de Crespigny, Rafe. To Establish Peace. Vol. 1. Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 1996. 2 vols.
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. To Establish Peace. Vol. 2. Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 1996. 2 vols.