Gongjin's Campaign Memorials
Gongjin's Campaign Memorials

Sima Shi 司馬師 was a military general of Wei. Brother of Sima Zhao and eldest son of Sima Yi. Sima Shi participated in Sima Yi’s coup which resulted in the death of the regent of Wei, Cao Shuang. This made the Sima’s the sole authority in Wei. When Sima Yi died, Sima Shi inherited his father’s authority. In 254 he deposed the Wei emperor Cao Fang and replaced him with Cao Mao. One year later Sima Shi himself passed away and his younger brother Sima Zhao took over his authority.

When Sima Yan, son of Sima Zhao, founded the Jin dynasty, he posthumously titled Sima Shi as Emperor of Jin.

History of Jin official biography [translation][]

 Emperor Jing 景, whose given name is Shi 師, and style name Ziyuan 子元, was the eldest son of Emperor Xuan 宣 [Sima Yi]. He was a cultured and elegant man with impressive charms. He was also a composed and tough man excelling in grand strategies. When he was young, he had earned a reputation, and was equally prominent as Xiahou Xuan 夏侯玄 and He Yan 何晏. He Yan used to say, “The only person who could have the great achievements under the heaven is probably Sima Ziyuan.” During the Jingchu 景初 years of the Wei dynasty,[n 1] he was appointed as Cavalier Attendant-in-Ordinary (sànjí chángshì 散騎常侍), and received a few promotions to the post of Military Protector of the Palace (zhōnghùjūn 中護軍). He devised a system of talent selection, in which official candidates were promoted according to their feats without excess, thus there was no favouritism between them. When Empress Xuanmu 宣穆 [Zhang Chunhua] died, he was known for his filial piety shown during the bereavement.

 When Emperor Xuan plotted to slay Cao Shuang 曹爽, the pair had conspired secretly, even without the participation by Emperor Wen 文 [Sima Zhao]. When the coup d’etat was to take place, they told the latter only at the evening before they took action. After that, Emperor Xuan ordered some agents to observe his two sons. The Emperor [Sima Shi] went to bed as usual, but Emperor Wen tossed and turned in bed. The next morning, the trio assembled their troops at the Sima Gate. Emperor Jing’s men were calm both outside and inside the gate, and he had excellent deployment for the troops he led. Emperor Xuan said, “This son really worked well.” Previously, the Emperor [Sima Shi] had secretly gathered and kept three thousand men of sacrifice, who were scattered among commoners. When the coup broke out, all these men gathered, and nobody knew where they came from. When the coup succeeded, Shi was ennobled as Marquis of Changpingxiang (chǎngpíngxiāng hóu 長平鄉侯), with a fief of one thousand households. Shortly after, he also received the title of General of the Guards (wèi jiāngjūn 衛將軍). Wen Emperor Xuan passed away, a lot of people said unanimously, “When Yi Yin is gone, his son Yi Zhi should take over.” The Emperor of Wei appointed him as the General-in-Chief Who Pacifies the Army (fǔjūn dà jiàngjūn 撫軍大將軍) for regency.

 In the first month of lunar calendar, the spring of the 4th year of Jiaping 嘉平 of Wei dynasty,[n 2] he was promoted to the post of General-in-Chief (dà jiàngjūn 大將軍), and he also received the post as Palace Attendant (shìzhōng 侍中). He was entitled to bear the Imperial Staff, and was in charge of military affairs of all armies stationed both in and out of the palace. In the meantime, was also given authority over the Imperial Secretariat (lù shàngshū shì 錄尚書事). He ordered that all officials should recommend talents, define the hierarchical ranks, take care of the impoverished and the orphaned, and deal with the delayed personnel affairs. Zhuge Dan 諸葛誕, Guanqiu Jian 毌丘儉, Wang Chang 王昶, Chen Tai 陳泰, and Hu Zun 胡遵 were appointed as commanders for different regional armies. Wang Ji 王基, Zhou Tai 州泰, Deng Ai 鄧艾 and Shi Bao 石苞 took charge of the affairs of provinces and commanderies. Lu Yu 盧毓 and Li Feng were to govern official selection. Fu Gu 傅嘏 and Yu Song 虞松 worked as members of the imperial think tank. Zhong Hui 鍾會, Xiahou Xuan, Wang Su 王肅, Chen Ben 陳本, Meng Kang 孟康, Zhao Feng 趙酆 and Zhang Ji 張緝 served as courtiers in the central government. People across the entire country were supportive of the arrangement, and everything in the government and the society was in order. Someone proposed to alter the existing institutions. Shi said, “A poet used to praise those who ‘abide by the principles of the Heavenly Lord and appear as if they know nothing themselves’. The institutions and rules devised by ancestors of the Three Dynasties should be complied with. If there is no war, there should be no reforms in haste.”

 In the fifth month in summer of lunar calendar in the 5th year of Jiaping, Grand Tutor (tàifu 太傅) Zhuge Ke 諸葛恪 of Wu besieged Xincheng. Courtiers were concerned that the enemy might divide his troops to invade the regions along Huai River and Si River, and thus they argued that the Court should send troops to guard all the river ports. Emperor Jing said, “Zhuge Ke just took the power of regency in Wu, and he desired to gain some quick benefits. So that he led his troops to gather at Hefei, where he might take his chance. He had no time to attack Qingzhou and Xuzhou. And there are so many river forts. If we station troops at a lot of ports, we have to send many people. If we just station at a few of them, our troops are not enough to resist the invaders.” It turned out that Zhuge Ke indeed focus on the attack against Hefei, as expected. The Emperor [Sima Shi] dispatched General Who Guards the East (zhēndōng jiāngjūn 鎮東將軍) Guanqiu Jian and Inspector of Yang province Wen Qin 文欽 to resist the invaders. Jian and Qin both asked the Emperor for an approval to fight. The Emperor said, “Zhuge Ke launched an all-out attack in the hinterland of our turf, and his men are in a dangerous situation. It is not easy to confront them directly. Xincheng is a small city with firm walls, not easy for them to attack and seize.” The Emperor [Sima Shi] ordered the officers to build higher walls for defense. The stalemate lasted a few months. The strength of Zhuge Ke’s offensive was exhausted, and more than half of his men were killed or injured. The Emperor [Sima Shi] ordered Wen Qin to lead elite forces to rush to Heyu, where they cut off the enemy’s route to return. Guanqiu Jian led his officers as reinforcements. Ke panicked and fled. Qin intercepted and attacked him, and had a crushing victory, killing tens of thousands of enemy soldiers.

 In the first month of the spring of the 1st Year of Zhengyuan 正元,[n 3] The Emperor of Wei plotted with a number of his allies, including Secretariat Director (zhōngshūlìng 中書令) Li Feng 李豐, the Empress’s father Zhang Ji who served as Household Counsellor (guānglù dàfū 光祿大夫), Director of the Yellow Gates (huángménjiān 黃門監) Su Shuo 蘇鑠, Director of Empress Dowager’s Palace (yǒngníng shǔlìng 永寧署令) Yue Dun 樂敦, and Supervisor of the Retinue of the Empress (zhōnggōng huángmén rǒngcóng púyè 中宮黃門宂從僕射)[n 4] Liu Baoxian 劉寶賢. They attempted to replace the Emperor [Sima Shi] for regency with Xiahou Xuan, then Minister of Ceremonies.[1] The Emperor [Sima Shi] knew the plot secretly. He sent his servant Wang Xian 王羨 to invite Li Feng to his residence by coach. Threatened, Li Feng arrived at the residence with Xian. The Emperor reproached Feng. Knowing that he was in big trouble, Li Feng cursed recklessly. Furious, the Emperor had him knocked to death by warriors with the handles of their sabers. The Emperor arrested Xiahou Xuan, Zhang Ji and their associates, and all the people of their clans were executed.

 In the third lunar month of that year, the Emperor [Sima Shi] implied that the Emperor of Wei should have Empress Zhang 張 deposed. An edict then was issued, saying, “Plotters Li Feng and his associates were used to hearing slanderous talk, and they secretly conspired vicious plans. The General-in-Chief complied with the laws for submission to the Heaven, and had them slain for justice. Zhou Bo 周勃 suppressed the chaos caused by the Lü clan 呂氏. Huo Guang 霍光 had Shangguan Jie 上官桀 apprehended. There is no feat that can be greater than this heroic deed of the General. Thus, the scale of his fief is to increase by nine thousand households, added to the existing forty thousand.” The Emperor [Sima Shi] modestly declined the offer.

 After Xiahou Xuan and Zhang Ji were executed, the Emperor of Wei was in great panic. Knowing that the rupture was revealed, the Emperor [Sima Shi] secretly planned to depose the Emperor of Wei. He implied his plan to Empress Dowager Yongning. On the day jiaxu of the ninth lunar month, the Empress Dowager issued an order,

The Monarch is now mature enough to rule, but His Majesty failed to govern all the state affairs. His Majesty indulged himself in his intimacy with palace attendants and consorts for perverted joys. He stayed close to entertainers and failed to discipline them so that they do not conduct indecent and brutal behaviors. He invited relatives of his consorts of the Six Palaces to stay at the Imperial Chambers. Such deeds brought stains to the immaculate normal human relations of the Imperial House, and stirred the ethical order between men and women. He was also coerced by a group of villains, thus he cannot fulfill his duties on the Throne.

 The Emperor of Wei summoned a convention of courtiers. With tears welling up in his eyes, he said, “The Empress Dowager said so today. What can you do for the Imperial House?” All the courtiers responded unanimously,

In the past, Yi Yin sent Tai Jia in exile to bring peace back to Yin (Shang dynasty). Huo Guang deposed Changyi (Prince Changyi Liu He occupied the Throne as Emperor for briefly one month) from the Throne to secure the Han empire. These statesmen weighed the pros and cons of their plans carefully for the stability and peace of the country. There were precedents in the two ancient dynasties, and Your Majesty is to accept such an arrangement at present. As for what happened today, Your Majesty just need to accept the suggestion.

 The Emperor of Wei said, “Your expectations on me are so great. How can I avoid such an arrangement?” Then he submitted a memorial along with all the courtiers to the Empress Dowager. They said,

We hear that the Son of the Heaven should live up to his duties to take care of the masses and bring peace to all places under the Heaven. Nowadays, the Monarch has grown up, yet has not governed the state affairs in person. He orders young entertainers such as Guo Huai 郭懷 and Yuan Xin 袁信 to practice perverted games in the nude. He also dressed himself up to mimick a coquettish woman from Liaodong. Seeing that scene, the passers-by all covered their eyes with their hands. Director of Imperial Music Troupe (qīngshānglìng 清商令) Linghu Jing 令狐景 admonished him. He burned iron to scorch the man.[2] When the Empress Dowager was in the bereavement of her mother Heyangjun, His Majesty kept having fun as usual. Vice Director of Imperial Music Troupe (qīngshāngchéng 清商丞) Pang Xi 龐熙 admonished him again, but he was reluctant to listen. When the Empress Dowager returned to the North Palace, where she had Beauty Zhang executed, the Monarch held a bitter grudge. When Xi admonished, he was irritated, and grabbed a stone to cast at the man with a slingshot. Every time when a document was submitted to him, he would not even lay his eyes on it. The Empress Dowager ordered him to receive academic lectures at the Chamber of Shiqian, but he declined again. Therefore, he is not a qualified ruling heir of the Imperial House. We advised that the Empress Dowager should take back the Imperial Seal and Ribbon, and the Monarch could return to his previous fief as Prince Qi.

 The Empress Dowager approved the proposal. Then, related departments made a sacrificial offering of tailao 太牢 [n 5] to the Imperial Temple. Prince Qi boarded an attendant coach. Courtiers followed the coach and arrived at Xiye Gate (West Gate of Palace). The Emperor of Wei wept and said, “I received unusual grace from the previous generations. When the Late Emperor was dying, he entrusted me to guard the state in his will. I let him down for his commitment, and failed to perform good governance and correct my mistakes. Following the ancient precedents, the courtiers would rather betray me for the security of the state, so that my ancestors could continue to enjoy their offerings at the Imperial Temple.” The Court dispatched envoys bearing the Imperial Staff to escort the Prince. And he later resided at Chongmen, Henei commandery. Guo Huai, Yuan Xin and their associates were executed.

 On that very day, the Emperor [Sima Shi] and the courtiers discussed the candidacy for the Throne. The Emperor [Sima Shi] said,

Today, the world is not in peace. There are two enemies contending for dominance. The Throne of the Monarch for all the people under the Heaven belongs to only a wise man. Prince of Pengcheng Cao Ju 曹據 is a son of Emperor Taizu 太祖.[n 6] Concerning wisdom, he is a bright and benevolent man. Concerning age, he is the eldest son in the Imperial House. The Imperial Throne is the most important post in the world. If the occupant of the Throne is not talented, he can by no means bring peace to the entire nation.

 He and the courtiers submitted the proposal to the Empress Dowager. The lady thought that Prince of Pengcheng was one of the Late Emperor’s uncles, and that it was not the right order for him to assume the Throne. If the Prince did occupy the Throne, Emperor Liezu 烈祖[n 7] would have no heir forever. Prince Ding of Donghai was the younger brother of Emperor Ming, and the Prince desired to let his son Cao Mao, the Duke of Gaogui, to assume the Throne. The Emperor [Sima Shi] insisted on the choice of Prince of Pengcheng, but the Empress Dowager did not cave in. Then, the Emperor [Sima Shi] accepted the Empress Dowager’s arrangement, and he sent envoys to meet the Duke at Yuancheng for the enthronement. The era name was altered as Zhengyuan. At the enthronement, the new Monarch appeared sluggish, and he raised his feet too high. Hearing this, the Emperor felt worried. When a court assembly was to begin, the Emperor [Sima Shi] told the new Emperor of Wei,

Sagacious monarchs attach great importance to beginnings. Ancient people were cautious when it comes to maintaining foundation and honoring beginnings. Tomorrow, at the grand assembly, over ten thousand people is to look at your serious face, and the courtiers would hear your nice voice. The Classic of Poetry 詩 says, ‘When you do not show frivolity to the people, you are the one worth following.’ The Classic of Changes 易 says, ‘If you have nice sayings, you would have responses echoing by people from thousands of li away.’ Although the ceremony is well arranged, it is particularly important that Your Majesty should behave in a serious manner, and all your subjects can look up to you.

 On the day guisi of the month, an imperial edict from the Throne said,

I heard that the founding monarch must have his backbone supporters. The following monarchs whose job is to preserve the accomplishments also rely on competent regent ministers. Therefore, King Wen and King Wu of Zhou Dynasty had their achievements secured with the assistance of Lü Wang (Duke Tai, Jiang Ziya) and Duke Zhao. King Xuan of Zhou relied on [Zhong] Shanfu [中]山服 to enjoy the restoration. With unparalleled virtues, you, the General-in-chief, assumed regency at the right time. The Heaven imposed afflictions on the Imperial House. When Prince Qi presided over the state affairs, he did not comply with the imperial principles. With your righteousness and loyalty, you have brought peace to the State, disciplined all the officials, and governed civil affairs. You suppressed the atrocities of bandits and quelled the chaos stirred up by villains. When the sun is about to set, you still work hard for the state affairs day and night. Your virtues and reputation have enlightened people from both the upper and lower ranks. Your feats and accomplishments are evident in all corners of the State. With your profound consideration, you took the lead to make the wise proposal. Weighing the pros and cons, you managed to bring peace to the State and help me assume the Throne. The Imperial Temple gained peace, and the subjects rejoiced over their dependence on your regency. Yi Zhi managed to defend Yin [Shang dynasty]. The Duke of Zhou [Ji Dan 姬旦] brought peace to the Imperial House of Zhou. Even their feats are not greater than yours. I appreciate your efforts very much. A man with remarkable virtues deserves a noble position. A man with great feats deserves a considerable salary. These rules prevail from ancient times to the present. I hereby appoint you, the General-in-chief, as the Chancellor, and you are to have an addition of nine thousand households to your fief, which originally contained forty thousand households. Your official title is promoted as the Grand Commander. And you are entitled to bear the yellow Imperial Axe. When you visit the Throne at the court, you do not have to walk in small steps. When you report to the Throne, you do not need to inform me of your name. You are entitled to the privileges of carrying a sword and wearing shoes in the court chamber. I shall award you with five million coins and five thousand rolls of satin to honor your grand feats.

 Emperor Jing firmly declined the post of Chancellor.

 Emperor Jing submitted a memorial to the Throne and said,

Though the rough gems from Jing Mountain are attractive, they will not be treated as treasure without carving. Though Yan Hui and Ran Geng are talented people, they would not enrich their knowledge if they do not study. Confucius said, ‘I’m not born to be a learned man. I just enjoy learning the ancient knowledge and am willing to explore it.’ The lords in the five ancient dynasties, such as the Yellow Emperor, all have some principles to follow. Zhuanxu 顓頊 was taught by Lü Tu 綠圖. Gao Xin 高辛 asked Bo Zhao 柏招 for instructions of the Way. When the Zhou dynasty was founded, Duke of Zhou and Lü Wang 呂望 [Duke of Tai , Jiang Ziya 姜子牙] exercised regent powers. They were able to discern and follow the ideals and thoughts of the ancient sages and bring peace and prosperity to the people. When they achieved this state, the ruler was wise and the subjects were submissive. It was because of this that the prosperous age in which penalties were rarely used had been achieved. Your Majesty should keep the humbleness of the ancestral monarchs to accept the advice from subordinates, so that Your Majesty can attend academic lectures and study sessions frequently, and the words of classics can be heard each day.”

 At that time, the Emperor of Wei had an obssession with extravagant ornaments. The Emperor [Sima Shi] admonished again, “In the beginning of Your Majesty’s reign, frugality is the better practice.” The Emperor of Wei accepted both suggestions.

 In the eleventh lunar month of that year, a streak of white clouds went through the sky.

 In the first lunar month of the next year, a comet appeared at the boundary between Wu and Chu. The phenomenon was at the northwestern corner of the sky and lasted for an entire day.

 General-in-Chief Who Guards the East (zhèndōng dà jiàngjūn 鎮東大將軍) Guanqiu Jian and the Inspector of Yang province Wen Qin started a mutiny. They issued an order in the name of the Empress Dowager to all commanderies and fiefs, and built a terrace to swear alliance outside the West Gate. Each of the pair sent four sons as hostages to Wu to ask for help. In the second lunar month, Jian and Qin led sixty thousand men to cross the Huai River, and then they marched westwards.[3] The Emperor summoned the courtiers for a meeting to discuss war mobilization. Most people said that he just needed to dispatch some officers to attack the pair. Wang Su, Master of Writing Fu Gu and Attendant Gentleman of the Palace Writers (zhōngshū shìláng 中書侍郎) Zhong Hui advised that the Emperor [Sima Shi] himself should lead men to quell the mutiny. On the day wuwu 戊午 of the month, the Emperor [Sima Shi] led more than one hundred thousand men of the imperial infantry and cavalry forces to attack the rebels.[4] The men marched at double speed, summoned extra forces from three directions, and assembled at the suburbs of the two cities of Chen and Xu (Chenzhou and Xuchang).

 On the day jiashen 甲申 of the month, the forces stationed at Yinqiao.[5] Guanqiu Jian’s subordinate officers Shi Zhao 史招 and Li Xu 李續 came to surrender. Jian and Qin led their forces into Xiangcheng. The Emperor [Sima Shi] sent the Inspector of Jing province Wang Ji to occupy Nandun, where he could threaten Jian. The Emperor ordered his men to fortify the city with high walls to wait for the assembly of the forces from the east. Officers asked the Emperor to order an attack on the city held by the rebels. The Emperor said,

You know something obvious about the situation, but you do not know anything more profound about it. The men on the south bank of Huai River have no idea to start a revolt. Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin want to follow the strategy of Vertical and Horizontal Alliance. They desire to practice Zhang Yi and Su Qin’s theories, and believe that they will be echoed with support by all places near and far. However, on the day when they revolted, people on the north bank of Huai River refused to follow them. Shi Zhao and Li Xu broke away from them. They suffered internal instability and external rebellion simultaneously. They knew that they would sure lose the game, but even a beast at bay will put up a desperate fight. A quick operation fits their wish better. Though we are sure that we would win, there might also be a lot of casualties. And Jian and his officers were dishonest with their soldiers. They used every means of deception. Let’s hold our forces and wait a while, their deception would be exposed, and we don’t need to fight to win.

 The Emperor [Sima Shi] then dispatched Zhuge Dan to urge the forces of Yu province to march from Anfeng to Shouchun. General Who Subdues the East (zhēngdōng jiāngjūn 征東將軍) Hu Zun ordered forces of Qing province and Xu province to march out from the region between Qiao and Song, in an attempt to cut the return road of the insurgents.

 The Emperor [Sima Shi] stationed his forces at Ruyang 汝陽. He ordered the Inspector of Yan province Deng Ai to lead forces to station at Lejia 樂嘉, where the forces feigned to be weak to lure the enemy. Qin was about to order his forces to attack Ai. With mouth gags between their lips, the Emperor and his forces directly rushed to Lejia, where they met Wen Qin. Qin’s son Wen Yang 文鴦 was eighteen years old, and the boy was known for his unparalleled valor. Yang told Qin, “Now they are not composed. We should climb up to the city walls and play the drums, then we can launch an attack to smash them.” As they decided on the plan, they carried it out. After three rounds of drum playing, Qin could not respond with an attack. Yang retreated, and led his forces to fled to the east. The Emperor [Sima Shi] told his generals, “Qin is gone.” He then ordered his elite forces to chase the enemy. The generals all said, “Qin is a veteran commander, while Yang is a young and sharp man. They led their men into the city and didn’t suffered a loss. It’s impossible that they have fled.” The Emperor said,

When the first round of drum playing happened, the soldiers had the best morale. The second round went with a decline of morale. When the third round is played, their morale was exhausted. Yang played three rounds, and there was no response from Qin. They already felt frustrated. What are they waiting for if they do not flee?

 When Qin was about to flee, Yang said, “If we don’t frustrate them, we cannot leave safely.” The boy then led more than ten valiant cavaliers to charge against the Emperor’s forces. Wherever they went, they managed to smash the defense. And then they retreated. The Emperor ordered Chief Clerk on the Left (zuǒ zhǎngshǐ 左長史) Sima Lian 司馬璉 to lead eight thousand valiant cavaliers to chase the enemy.[6] The Emperor also ordered General Yue Chen 樂綝 to lead infantry forces to follow the cavaliers in the rear. When they arrived the battleground, they rushed into the formations of Wen Qin a few times. The arrows fell like rain. Wen Qin covered himself with a shield and ran for his life. The government forces smashed the insurgents, who all dropped their dagger-axes to surrender. Wen Qin and his son rushed to defend Xiangcheng. When Guanqiu Jian heard of Qin’s fiasco, he abandoned his crowd and fled to the south bank of Huai River at night. The Commandant of Anfeng Ferry Port (Anfengjin Duwei) chased Jian, and beheaded him. The Commandant sent Jian’s chopped head to the Capital. Wen Qin fled to Wu. Peace on the south bank of Huai River was restored.

 In the beginning, the Emperor grew a tumor at his eye. He ordered a doctor to remove it. When Yang was to attack him, he was shocked and his eye fell out of the eye socket. Worried that the armies might panic, he covered himself in the quilt. He suffered severe affliction, and bit the quilt into rags. Nobody around him noticed his suffering. In the intercalary month that year, his illness turned critical, and he entrusted Emperor Wen [Sima Zhao] to take charge of all military affairs. On the day xinhai 辛亥 of the month, he died in Xuchang, aged 48.

 In the second lunar calendar of the following year, the Emperor’s coffin arrived at the Capital from Xuchang. The Emperor of Wei dressed himself in white to present his condolences at the coffin. The Imperial Edict said, “Your Highness have achieved great feats. You protected the people and brought peace to the State. You suppressed rebellions and chaos. And you died in sacrifice to defend the Throne. You deserve special veneration and rite. The courtiers should discuss the ceremonies for the funeral.” The relevant authorities proposed that the Imperial Court should follow the precedent of Huo Guang and grant the title of Grand Marshal (dà sīmǎ 大司馬) to the late General-in-Chief.[7] The deceased was to enjoy an addition of fifty thousand households to his fief, as well as a posthumous title of the Duke Wu (Duke of Military Brilliance). Emperor Wen [Sima Zhao] modestly declined the idea in his memorial to the Throne,

My late father dare not receive the title of Chancellor (Xiangguo or Chengxiang) and the Nine Bestowments, and my late brother dare not accept the title of Chancellor as well, because they knew that Emperor Taizu used to hold the title. If today their posthumous titles are the same with the two late Emperors, we would feel uneasy and panic. In the past, Xiao He, Zhang Liang and Huo Guang all had great feats of protecting the Imperial House. Xiao He’s posthumous title was Wenzhong. Zhang Liang’s was Wencheng, and Huo Guang’s was Xuancheng. If there must be a character of Wen or Wu in his posthumous title, I suggest that we follow the precedents of Xiao He and the others.

 The Emperor of Wei approved the suggestion in a following edict, and granted the posthumous title of Zhongwu to the deceased. When the Jin dynasty was established, the Emperor was posthumously granted the title of Prince Jing. When Emperor Wu 武 [Sima Yan] assumed the Imperial Throne, he granted the honorific title of Emperor Jing to the Emperor [Sima Shi]. The name of the Emperor’s mausoleum was Junping 峻平, and his Temple Name was Shizong 世宗.

Editting Records [to JS 2][]

[1] In both “Biography of Xiahou Xuan” in the Book of Wei [of the Records of the Three Kingdoms] and Volume 76 of the Zizhi tongjian, the name Liu Baoxian 劉寶賢 appears as Liu Xian 劉賢.
[2] “He burned iron to scorch the man 帝燒鐵灸之”. In the Hall of Wuying Edition 武英殿本 and the Jinling press 金陵書局本, the character 灸 jiu appears as 炙 zhi. In this version, the character is the same one that appears in the Bainaben Jinshu, a photocopied edition published by Commercial Press. Hereinafter, the Commercial Press edition appears as the Song Edition, and the Jiguge Edition of Mao Jin appears as Mao Edition. Note: In the Biography of Emperor Guangwu of History of the Later Han, there is a sentence reading, “Anyone who tortures their servants will be brought to punishment in accordance with this law.” (敢灸灼奴婢論如律) The character 灸 jiu seems more reasonable.
[3] In the second lunar month of the year, Guanqiu Jian led sixty thousand men to cross Huai River and march westwards. In the biography of the Duke of Gaogui in Book of Wei, it is said that Jian and Qin revolted in the Yichou day of the first lunar month of the following year. In the biography of Guanqiu Jian of the Book of Wei, a letter by Guanqiu Jian to Guo Huai says, “I will send extra troops on the sixteenth day of the intercalary month, and will attack Sima Shi at Lejia City.” In the biography of the Duke of Gaogui, it is said that Qin was defeated at Lejia on the day jihai of the intercalary month. On the day jiachen, he was beheaded. Note: That year, the first lunar month had an intercalary month, and the day jihai was the sixteenth day of the intercalary month, and day jiachen was the twenty-first day of the month. Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin’s revolt and defeat both happened before the second lunar month. Here, it says that the event took place in the second lunar month. The record is probably inaccurate.
[4] On the day wuwu of the month, the Emperor [Sima Shi] led more than one hundred thousand men of the imperial infantry and cavalry forces to attack the rebels. Note: The day wuwu was the sixth day of the second lunar month that year. At that time, Qin and Jian were both defeated. In Sanguozhi Suoyan by Shen Jiaben, it is said that the day wuwu actually should be wuyin. Qin and Jian started the revolt on the twelfth day of the first lunar month. Sima Shi launched his expedition on the day wuyin, which was the twenty-fifth day of the first lunar month. Shen’s prediction may be right. The date here is wrong, both the day and the month.
[5] On the day jiashen of the month, the forces stationed at Yinqiao (甲申,次于濦橋). The day jiashen was the first day of the first lunar month that year. Sima Shi’s arrival at Yinqiao and his demise both happened in the intercalary month. In the following text, the characters 閏月 runyue, the intercalary month, should be put in front of jiashen 甲申. This argument can be proved by the contents in volume 76 of Zizhi tongjian.
[6] In volume 76 of Zizhi tongjian, the name Sima Lian 司馬璉 appears as Sima Ban 司馬班.
[7] In the text “... grant the title of Grand Marshal to the late General-in-Chief” (追加大司馬之號以冠大將軍), there used to be the character 軍 jun after the character 冠 guan. In Li Ciming’s Notes to the History of Jin, the scholar says, “The character 軍 jun is redundant after the character 冠 guan. In this version, we remove the redundant character according to Li’s correction.

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  1. GJCM notes: the Jingchu years were from 237-239. At the time Cao Rui was Wei’s emperor.
  2. GJCM notes: the Jiaping years were from 249-254. At the time Cao Fang was Wei’s emperor.
  3. GJCM notes: the Jiaping years were from 254-256. At the time Cao Mao was Wei’s emperor.
  4. GJCM notes: the original Chinese text only gives us the hanzi 冗從僕射, but it is short for 中宮黃門宂從僕射.
  5. GJCM notes: the offering of one ox, one goat and one pig.
  6. GJCM notes: referring to Cao Cao 曹操, who posthumously received the temple name Taizu.
  7. GJCM notes: referring to Cao Rui 曹叡, who posthumously received the temple name Liezu.



  • Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 (578-648). Jin shu 晉書 “History of Jin”. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974.