Gongjin's Campaign Memorials
Gongjin's Campaign Memorials

Zhu Jun 朱儁 was a loyal Han officer who gained experience and fame during the Jiaozhi Rebellion and Yellow Turban Rebellion, starting off with a loss against Bo Cai but eventually overcoming Division after Division. He succumbed to an illness in 195 AD.

History of the Later Han official biography [translation][]

  Zhu Jun, style name Gongwei, was a native of Shangyu county in Kuaiji commandery [in Yang province]. His father died when he was young, and his mother made a living selling silk fabrics. Zhu Jun earned a good reputation for his filial piety. He served as secretary to the county magistrate. He was generous in aiding needy people, and the locals respected him. Once, Zhou Gui 周規, a fellow native of the commandery was summoned to serve in the government. When Zhou was about to depart, he took out a loan of a million taels for the expenses of clothing. Later, the commandery authorities urged him to repay, but Zhou had no means to make the payment due to poverty of his family. Zhu Jun stole some silk fabrics from his mother to raise money and help Zhou Gui solve the problem.[1] With her possessions lost, Zhu’s mother reproached him bitterly. Zhu said, “A little loss at present may translate into great gainings later. It is inevitable and reasonable that one has to undergo poverty first to achieve wealth in the future.”

[1] Zhou Gui was summoned to an interview for government service. Zhu Jun raised funds to help him with the matter.

  Du Shang 度尚, a native of Shanyang commandery and county magistrate of Shangyu, met Zhu Jun and was impressed with him. The magistrate recommended him to Grand Administrator Wei Yi 韋毅. He served in a few government posts in the commandery. Later, Grand Administrator Yin Duan 尹端 appointed Zhu Jun as Registrar. In the second year of Xiping,[n 1] Yin Duan was impeached by the province through a memorial submitted to the throne, and was supposed to be sentenced to death. Putting on ragged clothes, carrying a few hundred taels of copper, Zhu Jun took a shortcut to visit the capital, where he bribed the official in charge of memorials to the throne. He managed to alter the content of the document submitted by the province, and hence Yin Duan’s sentence was changed into labor service at the Left Camp. Yin was glad that he got a minor punishment of dismissal, but he did not know why, and Zhu Jun never mentioned the matter.

  Later, Grand Administrator Xu Gui 徐珪 recommended Zhu as Filial and Incorrupt (xiàolián 孝廉), and later Zhu was promoted as Magistrate of Lanling County. Zhu was recommended to the court by Chancellor of Donghai. Insurgent groups of the Jiaozhi tribes started a rebellion, the local Administrator and Governor were too weak to suppress the chaos. More than ten thousand rebels led by Liang Long 粱龍 from Jiaozhi, started a rebellion with the assistance of Kong Zhi 孔芝, who was the Grand Administrator of Nanhai. The rebels seized many commanderies and counties. In the first year of Guanghe,[n 2] the Imperial Court appointed Zhu Jun as Inspector of Jiaozhi commandery, and ordered him to recruit soldiers from his household guards and his native commandery.[1] He managed to gather five thousand men, including the troops dispatched by the court, and divided them into two routes to enter the commandery (Jiaozhi). When he was about to enter, he halted the troops, and sent an envoy to visit the fort for reconnaisance and propaganda of the imperial might and virtues, so as to sway the minds of the rebels. Later, his troops joined the forces sent by another seven commanderies to threaten the fort, and they slew Liang Long. Several tens of thousands of rebels surrendered. The entire commandery was recaptured within one month. Zhu was ennobled as Marquis of Duting for the feat, and he was awarded with a fief of one thousand five hundred households, fifty jin of copper. He was also summoned to the court to serve as Counsellor Remonstrant (jiànyì dàfū 諫議大夫).

[1] Household guards (jiābīng 家兵) are servants. The word 调 means to dispatch and allocate.

  When the Yellow Turban Rebellion began, many court officials recommended Zhu Jun for his talents and competency. He was appointed as General of the Household of the Right (zuǒ zhōngláng jiāng 左中郎將), and was also granted the right of Bearing the Staff of Authority (zhíjié 持節),[n 3] along with Huangfu Song 皇甫嵩, who was General of the Household of the Left (yòu zhōngláng jiāng 右中郎將), he attacked rebel groups in Yingchuan [commandery], Runan [commandery] and Chen state, and suppressed all of them. Huangfu Song informed the throne of the victories, and attributed their success to Zhu Jun’s efforts. And thus Zhu’s noble title advanced to Marquis of Xi District, and he was promoted to assume the post of General of the Household Who Maintains the Rebels in Order (qiānzhèn zéi zhōngláng jiāng 遷鎮賊中郎將).

  At that time, Yellow Turban rebel Zhang Mancheng 張曼成, a native of Nanyang, led a rebellion and declared himself to be the “Messenger of the Gods”. He commanded several tens of thousands of men, slew the Grand Administrator [of Nanyang commandery] Chu Gong 褚貢, and stationed his troops at the foot of the city for more than one hundred days. Later, Grand Administrator Qin Jie 秦頡[n 4] attacked and killed [Zhang] Mancheng. The rebels appointed Zhao Hong 趙弘 as their new leader, and the number of them gradually increased to more than one hundred thousand, and they seized Wan city. Zhu Jun joined Xu Qiu 徐璆, who was Inspector of Jing Province, and Qin Jie, and managed to form an army of eighteen thousand men to besiege Zhao Hong. Their encirclement lasted from the sixth month to the eighth of the Lunar Calendar, but they still failed to capture the city. Certain government leaders in charge desired to summon Zhu back to the court. Zhang Wen 张温, who served as Excellency of Works, submitted a memorial to the throne. In the document, Zhang said,

In the past, when Qin used Bo Qi and Yan employed Yue Yi, both commanders spent years doing nothing, but when it came to the end their enemies were defeated.[1] Concerning Zhu Jun’s operation in Yingchuan, the general has achieved considerable results. He now commands his forces to go southwards, and his strategy and tactics are ready. All the military writers caution against changing generals in the middle of a campaign. Your Majesty, we may wait for days or even months, but in the end he will produce results.

  Then, Emperor Ling gave up the idea of summoning him. Hence, Zhu Jun accelerated his operation to attack Zhao Hong, and had him slain. Han Zhong 韓忠, now leader of the remnant rebels, occupied Wan city again to resist Zhu Jun. Outnumbered, Zhu’s troops failed to re-capture the city. Zhu ordered his men to set up a round barrier wall and bastions, and they also piled up an earth hill, on which they could observe the interior status of the city. Zhu ordered his men to play the drums and attack the southwest corner of the city. The rebels all gathered in the southwest for resistance. Zhu himself led five thousand elite soldiers to launch a sudden attack at the northeast corner of the city. They climbed up into the city. Terrified, Han Zhong retreated to a small city, and begged to surrender. Major Zhang Chao, Xu Qiu and Qin Jie all wanted to accept. Zhu Jun said,

When it comes to military situations, there are situations whose forms may appear similar with each other, but their momentums differ. In the late years of Qin Empire, when Xiang Yu rose, the people had no fixed monarch to follow. That’s why warlords offered incentives to encourage people to join their forces. Today, the entire empire is in unification, and only the Yellow Turban rebels betrayed the court. If we accept their surrender, we had no means to encourage obedience. If we suppress them, it is enough for us to punish evil. If we accept their surrender, our acceptance only encourages more disobedience. When the rebels are in favorable conditions, they would launch attacks against us. When they encounter defeats, they would beg us to accept their surrender. Tolerance for the rebels means encouragement for them, and it is not a good idea.

  Hence, the forces sped up their offensive, but failed to achieve victory after a series of battles. Zhu Jun climbed to the top of the earth hill for observation. Turning his face, he said to tell Zhang Chao,

I know it now. Now, the rebels have a tight siege-ring around them, but its interior must be in tension. Now that they asked to surrender and we refused, they want to but cannot break through our besiege, that is why they fight us so hard. When ten thousand people share the same will, they are unstoppable, let alone the case when there are one hundred thousand of them. A forcible offensive could be very terrible. It is better that we lift our siege and assemble all our forces to enter the city. When Han Zhong sees that the siege is lifted, he will definitely come out of the city. When he does come out of his defenses he’ll become less vigilant. That is the easy way to destroy him.

  Then, the siege was lifted, and Han Zhong came out to fight as expected. Zhu Jun started an attack, and had a smashing victory. Being triumphant, Zhu ordered his forces to keep pursuing the enemy dozens of miles, and annihilated more than ten thousand rebels. Han Zhong and his men surrendered. Bearing a grudge against Han Zhong, Qin Jie executed him. The remnant rebels felt insecure. They again appointed a leader, Sun Xia 孫夏, and return to station at Wan city. Zhu Jun attacked the rebels intensively. Sun Xia fled.[n 5] Chasing the rebels, Zhu’s forces reached Jing Hills in Xi’e [county], and defeated them again.[2] The government forces annihilated more than ten thousand rebels again, and the rebels scattered. In the spring of the next year, the Emperor sent a messenger, who bore the Imperial Staff, to appoint Zhu Jun as General of Chariots and Cavalry on the Right (yòu chēqí jiāngjūn 右車騎將軍). Zhu led his troops to return to the capital triumphantly. The imperial government appointed him as Household Counsellor, added another five thousand households to his fief, with an enhanced enfeoffment as Marquis of Qiantang,[3] accompanied by the appellation Specially Advanced (tèjìn 特進).[n 6] He stopped government service due to her mother’s death. When he resumed his public service, he was appointed as Court Architect (jiāngzuò dàjiang 將作大匠). Later, he served as Minister Steward (shǎofǔ 少府) and Minister Coachman (tàipú 太僕).

[1] The Records of the Grand Historian writes, “Bo Qi was a native of Mei. He was proficient in military maneuvers. He served as Daliangzao under King Zhao of Qin. He attacked the State of Wei, and occupied it. Five years later, he attacked State of Zhao, and took Guanglang city. Seven years later, he attacked State of Chu, and captured five cities, including Yan and Deng. The next year, he captured Ying (Chu Capital), and set fire to Yiling, and reached Jingling in the east of Chu. Yue Yi is a native of Zhao. He was wise man who enjoyed military affairs. King Zhao of Yan appointed him as Yaqing (a minister), and later as General-in-Chief. He launched a military expedition against State of Qi, and his forces entered Linzi. In a period of five years, he managed to capture more than seventy cities in State of Qi.”
[2] The old site of Xi’e was in the south of Xiangcheng county in present-day Dengzhou, and Jingshan Mountain is in the south of the county.
[3] Qiantang is present-day Hangzhou county. Memorial to Qiantang writes, “In the past, commandery advisor Hua Xin proposed a motion to build a coastal enbankment to defend the city against sea flood. In the beginning of the project, the government promised to pay one thousand coins to workers who could provide a hu (volume unit) of earth and stones. Within a month, a large number of workers arrived with earth and stones. Hua Xin stopped the plan to buy the earth and stones, and the people all threw away what they brought. Hua Xin then organized people to build the enbankment with the materials.”

  After the Yellow Turban Rebellion, there were various groups of rebels such as [those of] Black Mountain (Heishan 黑山), Huanglong 黃龍,[n 7] Bo Bo 白波,[n 8] Zuoxiao 左校,[n 9] Guo Daxian 郭大賢,[n 10] Yu Digen 于羝根, Qing Niujue 青牛角,[n 11] Zhang Boji 張白騎, Liu Shi 劉石, Zuo Zizhangba 左髭丈八,[n 12] Ping-Han Daji 平漢大計,[n 13] Sili Yuanzai 司隸緣哉,[1] Leigong 雷公, Fuyun 浮雲, Feiyan 飛燕, Boque 白雀,[n 14] Yang Feng, Yu Du 于毒, Wulu 五鹿,[n 15] Li Damu 李大目, Bo Rao 白繞,[n 16] Sui Gu 眭固, Kuqiu 苦唒.[2] The rebel who was known for his loud voice proclaimed himself as Leigong (“Lord of Thunder”). The rebel head who rode a white horse was known as Zhang Boji (“White Rider Zhang”). The rebel who was agile and fast was known as Feiyan (“Flying Swallow [Zhang]”). The man with a lot of beard was known as Yu Digen.[3] The rebel with large eyes was known as Damu (“Big Eyes”). All rebels had nicknames for different reasons. The larger of them would control twenty or thirty thousand men, the smaller only six or seven thousand.

[1] In Jiuzhou chunqiu, the name Daji (大計) is written as Dahong (大洪), and the name Yuanzai (掾哉) is written as Yuancheng (緣城).
[2] In Jiuzhou chunqiu, the character qiu 唒 is written as 蝤, and it is pronounced as qiu.
[3] Zuoshi zhuan 左氏傳 (Zuozhuan) says, “Alas, Yusi! He threw away his armor and came again!” Du Yu wrote a note about it, saying, “The characters yusi 于思 form an adjective, meaning densely bearded.”

  Bandit leader Zhang Yan 張燕 was a native of Changshan [commandery]. He was known for his agility and valor, and for this was hailed as Flying Swallow (Fēiyàn 飛燕) by his comrades in the rebel group. He was respected and supported by his soldiers. He kept in contact with rebel groups in the mountains and valleys, such as the rebels in Zhongshan, Changshan, Zhaojun, Shangdang and Henei. He managed to gather a million men in his force. His group became known as the Bandits of the Black Mountains (Hēishān zéi 黑山賊). The commanderies and counties to the north of the Yellow River were severely harrassed by them, and the Imperial Court failed to suppress the rebels. Zhang Yan sent an envoy to the capital, and submitted a memorial to the throne to surrender. He was then appointed as General of the Household Who Pacifies Disorder (píngnán zhōngláng jiāng 平難中郎將), and he took charge of the affairs in the mountains and valleys to the north of the Yellow River. He was also granted the right to nominate Filial and Incorrupt candidates and to send in Reporting Officers (jìlì 計吏).

  Zhang Yan gradually began to encroach on Henei and threaten the capital. The Imperial Court then appointed Zhu Jun as Grand Administrator of Henei, and Zhu led his private forces and defeated the rebels led by Zhang. Later, many of the rebel groups were conquered by Yuan Shao 袁紹, more on that was written down in his biography in this book.[n 17] The Imperial Court again appointed Zhu Jun as Household Counsellor (guānglù dàfū 光祿大夫). Later he took the post of commandant of Attendant Cavalry (fùjí dūwèi 鮒騎都尉). Soon, he was also appointed as Colonel of the City Gates (chéngmén xiàowèi 城門校尉) and Intendant of Henan (Hénán yǐn 河南尹).

  When Dong Zhuo 董卓 monopolized power at the court, he pretended to trust Zhu Jun, who was a veteran general, but in fact was very jealous. When the forces of the east were strong, Dong was scared. He convened several meetings of ministers to discuss a motion to relocate the capital to Chang’an. Each time Zhu Jun would stop him. Although Dong detested Zhu Jun for his dissent, he desired to exploit Zhu’s reputation. Thus, Dong recommended him for a promotion to the post of Minister Coachman (tàipú 太僕), as a deputy to Dong himself. When the court envoy declared the appointment, Zhu declined to accept it. Zhu said,

If the capital moved westwards, the imperial government would disappoint the people, and that would spell a woe for the region to the east of Yao Mountain and Hangu Pass. I think the plan is infeasible.
The court envoy asked him in retort, “I asked your excellency to accept the promotion, but you refused. I never asked anything about the capital relocation, but you mentioned it. Why?
Zhu said, “I am not the right candidate for the post of Vice Chancellor. Capital relocation is not an urgent matter. It is right for me to decline a promotion to the post for which I’m not competent and not to say anything on the matter that is not urgent at present.
The envoy said, “I have not heard of the plan of capital relocation. Even there is such a plan, the court has not released it. Where did you get the information?
Zhu said, “Chancellor Dong Zhuo told me all the details, and that is why I know it.

The envoy could not bend his will, and therefore he did not assume the office of Vice Chancellor.

  Later, Dong Zhuo entered the [Hangu] pass, and left Zhu Jun in charge at Luoyang. Zhu Jun volunteered to serve as a planted agent when he conspired with the generals from the east of Yao Mountain. Afraid that he might be attacked by Dong Zhuo, he gave up the official post and fled to Jing province. Dong appointed Yang Yi 楊懿, native of Hongnong, as the Intendant of Henan, and ordered him take charge in Luoyang. Hearing the news, Zhu led his forces to return to Luoyang, and Yang fled. Knowing that there was not enough resources to support his troops in the war-torn Henan, Zhu led his forces eastwards to station at Zhongmu. He announced an official call to arms to provinces and commanderies, begging garrisons to wage a war on Dong Zhuo. Tao Qian 陶謙, Inspector of Xu province, dispatched three thousand elite troops. The other provinces and commanderies also made their contributions moderately. Tao Qian recommended Zhu to the court for the post of General of Chariots and Cavalry. Hearing the news, Dong Zhuo ordered his officers Li Jue 李傕 and Guo Si 郭汜, who led several tens of thousands of men, to guard Henan and resist Zhu. Zhu launched a counter-attack, and was defeated by Li and Guo. Knowing that he could by no means defeat the pair, Zhu stayed at the foot of the pass and dared not to go any further.

  When Dong Zhuo was assassinated,[n 18] Li Jue and Guo Si started a mutiny, while Zhu was still in Zhongmu. Tao Qian believed that Zhu was a prominent official with many military feats and a reliable man who could tackle important affairs. Thus, Tao and other dignitaries jointly recommended him to assume the post of Grand Tutor (tàifú 太傅). They issued an official call to arms to governors of provinces, calling for joint military operations against Li Jue and his accomplices. And they decided to assist the Emperor to return to the capital. The officials submitted a letter to Zhu. It read,

This is a letter submitted to the office of your excellency the General of Chariots and Cavalry and the Intendant of Henan. The letter is jointly submitted by Tao Qian, Inspector of Xu province; Zhou Qian 周乾, former Inspector of Yang province; Yin De 陰德, Chancellor of Langya; Liu Kui 劉馗, Chancellor of Donghai;[1] Ji Lian 汲廉, Chancellor of Pengcheng; Kong Rong 孔融, Chancellor of Beihai; Yuan Zhong 袁忠, Chancellor of Pei; Ying Shao 應劭, Grand Administrator of Taishan; Xu Qiu, Grand Administrator of Runan; Fu Qian 服虔, former Grand Administrator of Jiujiang; and scholar Zheng Xuan 玄等. We feel obliged to voice our advice.[2] The state underwent a disaster caused by Dong Zhuo first, and now another one triggered by Li Jue and Guo Si. The young Emperor was abducted, the loyal officials opressed. Chang’an was isolated from the rest of the state, without any good or bad news trickling out. Therefore, the governing officials and wise gentlemen are all concerned and anxious. They believe that they themselves are not wise, courageous, and insightful enough. How can they suppress the chaos? Since the outbreak of the civil war, it has been three years. During these years, the provinces and commanderies just looked on, without efforts of fierce campaigns. They had nothing but infighting and suspicion between each other. We have gathered here to discuss on how to ward off the woes in the state. The crowd said unanimously, ‘My general, you are a man with both wisdom and bravery. Now that you take the charge for the mission, all the honorable men would hold up their heads and look to you for guidance.’ That is why we need to encourage each other and select elite troops. By doing so, we are able to penetrate into the land controlled by the enemy and reach Xianyang directly. We have enough military supplies and food that would last half a year. Now we unite in solidarity and entrust your excellency to accomplish the mission.

It happened that Li Jue accepted the advice of Grand Commandant Zhou Zhong and Minister of Writing Jia Xu 賈詡 to summon Zhu Jun to visit the throne. Officers and soldiers were all afraid of entering the pass. They desired to echo to Tao Qian and his fellows. Zhu Jun said,

When a subject is summoned is in the name of the monarch, he is obligated to go immediately even without waiting for a coach,[3] let alone by the edict of the Emperor! Li Jue and Guo Si are just small villains, and Fan Chou 樊稠 is a mediocre person without insightful vision. And these people are equally powerful. There must be chaos. If I could exploit their negligence to take a sudden strike, I can succeed.

Zhu thus declined Tao Qian’s suggestion. He accepted the post of Minister Coachman again. Tao Qian and his fellows gave up their plan.

[1] The pronunciation of the character 馗 is kui.
[2] Cai Zhi’s 蔡質 Dianzhi yi 典職儀 (Official Ceremonies and Etiquette) says, “When inspectors of provinces submit a letter to an excellency in the court, they say ‘We feel obliged to voice our advice’ in the letter.” [n 19]
[3] Analects (Lúnyǔ 論語) says, “When summoned by the monarch, a subject is obliged to depart immediately without seeking a coach.” The character 俟 means ‘to wait’.

  In the 4th year of Chuping,[n 20] Zhu was appointed as Grand Commandant (tàiwèi 太尉), and he also served as Master of Writing (shàngshū 尚書). In the next autumn, his posts were stripped due to the solar eclipse. He assumed the duties of General of Agile Cavalry (piāojí jiāngjūn 驃騎將軍) again, bearing an Imperial Staff to guard the region to the east of the pass. Before his departure for the new job, it happened that Li Jue assassinated Fan Chou, and Guo Si feared that he might be in danger himself. Guo and Li began to attack each other. An upheaval took place in Chang’an. Therefore, Zhu did not leave the capital. He stayed and accepted the post as the Minister of Finance. Emperor Xian issued an edict, in which he ordered more than ten people, including Zhu Jun and Grand Commandant Yang Biao 楊彪, to persuade Guo Si for reconciliation with Li Jue. Guo declined, and took Zhu Jun and others as his hostages. Upright as he was, Zhu died of a disease that very day.

Conclusion [to HHS 71][]

  Conclusion: Huangfu Song and Zhu Jun both accepted great missions for their talents as great military commanders when the empire was at risk.[1] They achieved military feats and eventual triumphs, and thus earned great prominence in the country. When the weak Emperor was badly treated, and ambitious rebels were rampant, it was truly the right time for heroes to stake their sleeves and rise like Lord Ye, and wage war on the usurpers like Zhai Yi did.[2] In the past, Liang Yan offered his plan. The dignitaries in the east formed a coalition. However, instead of accepting the plan, they showed their petty mercy and forgiveness like an ordinary man, only to meet their fiasco and be laughed at by wise people.[3] Was it true that the Heaven desired to encourage such rebellions? Alas, what a shame that those wise and brave men could not always stay wise and brave! Hua Qiao, a native of Pingyuan and a historian of the past dynasty, said that his father Household Counsellor Hua Biao[4] used to mention Hua Xin,[5] Qiao’s grand father who served as Grand Commandant in the Wei dynasty. Biao said, “People of the time said Huangfu Song was not fond of showing off his contributions. For the victory of the Battle in Ru and Yu, he attributed the success to Zhu Jun. When Zhang Jue was smashed, he said it was the feat of Lu Zhi. He said he had achieved no feats, keeping a low profile.[6] Probably achievements and fame are what people admire the most. If one could avoid struggling for such things, they would not face big trouble.” In a chaotic and dangerous situation, Lord Huangfu managed to secure his life and status. Isn’t it true that he had a noble character and impeccable integrity? That is why Yanzi (Yan Hui) did not want to brag about his virtues and deeds and take privileges. Such an attitude may be of key importance to conduct ourselves.[7]

[1] Zuo zhuan says, “Sacrificial offering and military operations are the most important affairs of a state. For sacrificial offering, there is a ritual of distributing meat. Before a military operation, there is a similar ritual.” The character 脤 is the meat for sacrificial offering in the temple of earth. Erya says, “For an important affair or an operation involving a lot of people, you must first hold a ceremony at the temple of earth and then begin to act. Such a ritual is neccessary.”
[2] Xinxu says, “Having killed the Chancellor (Lingyin) and Major (Sima), Sheng, Duke Bai of Chu, desired to anoint Prince Lu as the King. The prince declined. Sheng drew a saber to coerce him. The prince said, ‘I have heard that people who refuse to assume the throne are not the ones who despise the interests to declare their noble character, and those who do not accept the titles of prince and marquis are not the ones who abominate the post to declare their clean conduct. Now you tell me about the interests and threaten me with a weapon. I will not accept that.’ Duke Bai forced him, but he still declined. The duke slew him. Ye Gao, son of Lord Ye, led some native men of Chu to slay Duke Bai and re-install King Hui onto the throne.” The characters 投袂 means to stake the sleeve, a sign of anger. Zuozhuan says, “When Chuzi knew the ordeal, he staked his sleeve and rose.” Zhai Yi, son of Zhai Fangjin, decided to slay Wang Mang through a military expedition. The story is recorded in Book of Han. Book of Songs said, “Assemble the forces and announce the operation.” (陳師鞠旅) Zheng Xuan wrote a note to expalin the character 鞠, saying, “The character ju 鞠 means to announce, to inform.”
[3] The Coalition East of the Mountains was formed by the group of generals and the aforementioned Yuan Shao. The Shucheng 書稱 says, “Yi Yin is the spokesman of Heaven.” Analects says, “How could we bear petty mercy and forgiveness as average men and women?” Zhuangzi says, when Kongzi 孔子 (Confucius) met Daozhi 盜跖 the bandit, he retreated and said, “I almost lost my life in a tiger’s mouth.”
[4] The biography of Hua Qiao says, “Hua Qiao, courtesy name Weirong, is son of Hua Xin. In his twenties, he served as Cavalier Attendant-in-ordinary.”
[5] Book of Wei [of the Records of the Three Kingdoms] says, “The style name of Hua Xin is Ziyu.”
[6] The characters 斂策 mean not to evaluate one’s achievements.
[7] In Analects, Yan Hui says, “I do not want to brag about my virtues and efforts.”

Comments [to HHS 71][]

  Comments: When the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out, Huangfu Song accepted the mission to supress it. When he achieved triumph, he did not attribute the success to himself.[1] Zhu Jun suppressed the rebels in Chen and Ying, and he also smashed the rebellion in Yue.[2] As a serious man with great respect for the imperial orders, he underwent many difficulties, but did not change his noble character.[3]

[1] Laozi says, “When I had achievements, I did not attribute them to myself.”
[2] This triumph means Zhu Jun’s success in suppressing Xu Zhao. The character 于 means 吴, meaning the region 句吳, in the east of China.
[3] The character jue 蹶 is a synonym to 躓, meaning a fall to the ground, or failure.

See also[]


  1. GJCM notes: the year 173 AD.
  2. GJCM notes: the year 181 AD.
  3. GJCM notes: The Staff of Authority gave the bearer plenipotentiary powers to act on behalf of the emperor, taking his own initiative and reporting only afterwards. It was made of bamboo, about 185cm long and had three yaks’ tails fastened to the top as tassels.[1]
  4. GJCM notes: Qin Jie had succeeded Chu Gong as Grand Administrator of Nanyang.
  5. GJCM notes: Sun Jian’s official biography in the Book of Wu 1 in Records of the Three Kingdoms tells us that Sun Jian participated in the fight against Sun Xia as a Major in Zhu Jun’s army. He led his troops and was first to climb the walls. On the day guisi [11 Jan 185] they stormed Wan city, causing Sun Xia to flee, who was then chased and killed by Zhu Jun.[1]
  6. GJCM notes: this permitted him to remain in attendance at the court rather than being required to reside in the territory of his fief[1]
  7. GJCM notes: all these bandit leaders were known by their nicknames, which seem to have been given to them based on a trait they had. Huanglong means “Yellow Dragon”.
  8. GJCM notes: meaning “White Wave”.
  9. GJCM notes: meaning “Enclosure of the Left”.
  10. GJCM notes: meaning “Great Virtue Guo”.
  11. GJCM notes: meaning “Green Ox-Horn”.
  12. GJCM notes: meaning “Zuo with the Eighty-foot Moustache”.
  13. GJCM notes: meaning “Grand Design to Pacify Han”.
  14. GJCM notes: meaning “White Clouds”.
  15. GJCM notes: meaning “Five Deer”.
  16. GJCM notes: meaning “White Circles”.
  17. GJCM notes: referring to Yuan Shao's official biography in History of the Later Han, chapter 74.
  18. GJCM notes: this happened in May 192.
  19. GJCM notes: Cai Zhi was an uncle of Cai Yong 蔡邕. The Dianzhi yi 典職儀, or Hàn guān diǎnzhí yíshì xuǎnyòng 漢官典職儀式選用 is a text about offices in Former Han. The text is based on, or derived of Han jiuyi 漢舊儀.
  20. GJCM notes: the year 193.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 de Crespigny, Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling, Zhongping 1